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Table 5 Risk factors in malaria infected asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in both districts combined in 2015

From: From high to low malaria transmission in Zanzibar—challenges and opportunities to achieve elimination

  Healthy, malaria-negative controls**** Asymptomatic PCR positive Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Symptomatic RDT positive Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Total 2938 (100%) 53 (100%) 743 (100%) 1 (Ref)
Male 1202 (41%) 29 (55%) 1 (Ref) 476 (64%) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
Female 1736 (59%) 24 (45%) 0.6 (0.3 to 1.0) 267 (36%) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)
Slept under net—yes* 2062 (70%) 33 (62%) 1 (Ref) 286 (38%) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
Slept under net—no 876 (30%) 20 (38%) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.5) 457 (62%) 3.8 (3.2 to 4.5) 4.8 (3.9 to 6.0)
IRS—yes ** 2059 (70%) 43 (81%) 1 (Ref) 492 (66%) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
IRS—no 879 (30%) 10 (19%) 0.5 (0.3 to 1.0) 251 (34%) 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) 1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
No travel last month 2658 (90%) 50 (94%) 1 (Ref) 347 (47%) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
Travel inside Zanzibar last month 233 (8%) 2 (4%) 0.5 (0.1 to 1.5) 34 (5%) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)
Travel outside Zanzibar last month 47 (2%) 1 (2%) 1.1 (0.1 to 5.3) 362 (49%) 59.0 (43.1 to 82.5) 70.2 (50.0 to 100.6)
No travel outside Zanzibar last year*** 2811 (97%) 51 (98%) 1 (Ref) No data
Travel outside Zanzibar last year 80 (3%) 1 (2%) 0.7 (0.1 to 5.1) No data
  1. *Slept last night before survey under a net
  2. **IRS within last year before survey
  3. ***Travel from 1 month to 1 year before survey
  4. ****Asymptomatic PCR negative individuals in cross-sectional survey