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Table 1 Instruments used to measure public stigma

From: Out of the silos: identifying cross-cutting features of health-related stigma to advance measurement and intervention

Author Country Condition Target group N Evidence of validity Comments
SDS
Link et al. [90] USA Mental health conditions Random sample of Ohio residents 151 Alpha 0.92  
Lee et al. [91] USA HIV and AIDS College students 818 No validation was reported The SDS in this study used different items from the one adapted by Link et al. [90] used in all other studies
Peters et al. [43, 109] Indonesia Leprosy Community in an endemic district 259, 213 and 375 Alpha 0.87, SDCa 0.60, ICC 0.75 (95% CI 0.62–0.84); no floor or ceiling effects  
Sikorski et al. [92] Germany Obesity Telephone sample of general public 1008 Alpha 0.86  
Pachankis et al. [120] USA 44 health conditions Experts and general public 1025 Alpha 0.84 (expert raters); 0.83 general public raters  
EMIC
Vlassoff et al. [93] Nigeria
Cameroon, Ghana, Uganda
Onchocerciasis Unaffected persons 410 Alpha 0.76 12-item EMIC was used
Chowdhury et al. [49] India Mental health conditions Non-affected lay persons 21 Kappa 0.90 (inter-rater) 20–25 items, depending on version
Stienstra et al. [94] Ghana Buruli ulcer Healthy controls 33 Alpha 0.76 15-item EMIC
Rensen et al. [96] India Leprosy Non-affected community 806 Alpha 0.83; no floor or ceiling effects 13-item EMIC
Peters et al. [43, 109] Indonesia Leprosy Community in an endemic district 259, 213 and 375 Alpha 0.83, SDCa 0.81, ICC 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.90); no floor or ceiling effects 15-item EMIC
Kaehler et al. [97] Thailand Leprosy Community in an endemic district 257 No validation was reported 15-item EMIC
Adhikari et al. [133] Nepal Leprosy Community in an endemic district 281 No validation was reported 15-item EMIC
Sermrittirong et al. [95] Thailand Leprosy, tuberculosis Community in an endemic district 236 No validation was reported 15-item EMIC
  1. aSDCgroup Smallest detectable change in the group (based on standard error of measurement (SEM), using the formula 1.96 × √2 × SEM divided √n)
  2. EMIC Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, SDC smallest detectable change, SDS Social Distance Scale