Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of participants by adherence to the Mediterranean diet, Fenland and CoLaus studies*

From: The association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and hepatic steatosis: cross-sectional analysis of two independent studies, the UK Fenland Study and the Swiss CoLaus Study

Characteristic Fenland Study (n = 9645) CoLaus Study (n = 3957)
Q1 (3.30–7.84)* Q2 (7.85–8.73) Q3 (8.74–9.46) Q4 (9.47–10.28) Q5 (10.29–14.03) Q1 (1.83–7.45) Q2 (7.46–8.18) Q3 (8.19–8.82) Q4 (8.83–9.47) Q5 (9.48–12.18)
Age, years 48.8 ± 7.5 48.9 ± 7.3 48.9 ± 7.5 48.9 ± 7.6 49.1 ± 7.5 58.2 ± 10.7 58 ± 10.5 57.4 ± 10.4 56.3 ± 10.5 55.1 ± 9.4
Women, % 35.5 48.1 57.5 62.0 69.4 43.1 54.5 60.1 60.9 65.5
Marital status, %
 Single 7.5 7.5 5.4 6.9 8.9 17.3 12.9 14.4 17.3 15.0
 Married/cohabiting 66.5 68.7 70.9 70.2 69.1 54.3 57.1 60.1 59.8 58.2
 Separated 7.3 7.7 7.9 7.9 9.5 28.4 30.0 25.5 22.9 26.8
Occupation, %
 Managerial or professional 42.5 54.6 61.3 66.5 73.8
 Employed 53.4 56.9 55.7 63.1 67.9
Education, %
 Compulsory 27.8 22.6 18.6 14.0 9.2 18.8 16.6 15.4 13.4 11.0
 Secondary 55.1 50.7 46.3 41.1 36.5 65.0 64.6 61.2 58.8 59.8
 University 17.2 26.7 35.1 44.9 54.3 16.2 18.8 23.4 27.8 29.2
Annual income, %
 < £20,000 16.9 13.6 11.7 11.4 9.6
 £20,000–40,000 41.7 35.3 34.2 30.0 27.5
 > £40,000 38.7 48.3 52.5 56.6 61.0
Current smoker, % 20.0 11.4 10.4 8.8 6.2 26.4 22.8 21.0 18.1 16.4
Alcohol intake, unit/week
 Abstainers 4.1 4.3 4.5 3.9 2.6 21.1 23.3 24.0 24.5 24.1
 Moderate 60.5 61.6 60.7 60.8 60.7 62.5 65.9 69.9 70.8 72.9
 Heavy 22.7 25.9 27.5 27.7 29.5 16.4 10.9 6.1 4.7 2.9
Energy intake, kcal/day 2120 ± 599 1949 ± 595 1888 ± 550 1827 ± 531 1824 ± 527 1853 ± 633 1804 ± 628 1804 ± 606 1778 ± 588 1709 ± 583
Protein, % energy 17.6 ± 3.7 18.2 ± 3.5 18.3 ± 3.6 18.2 ± 3.5 18.0 ± 3.4 15.6 ± 3.6 15.8 ± 3.6 15.5 ± 3.1 15.5 ± 3.1 14.9 ± 2.8
Carbohydrate, % energy 46.6 ± 7.3 47.6 ± 6.8 48.2 ± 6.8 49.0 ± 6.9 49.3 ± 6.8 45.1 ± 9.7 44.9 ± 9.1 46.7 ± 8.4 47.0 ± 8.3 48.3 ± 8.0
Fat, % energy 35.3 ± 5.7 33.9 ± 5.5 33.1 ± 5.6 32.6 ± 5.7 32.6 ± 5.8 33.3 ± 6.7 34.7 ± 6.7 34.6 ± 6.7 34.6 ± 6.6 34.5 ± 6.8
PAEE, kcal/day 1048 ± 903 878 ± 750 777 ± 668 740 ± 582 696 ± 515      
TEE, kcal/day 2748 ± 672 2667 ± 642 2647 ± 621 2615 ± 581 2665 ± 615
Metabolic syndrome, %§ 42.5 37.8 31.9 29.7 22.6 39.5 37.5 24.0 28.8 26.0
BMI, kg/m2 27.5 ± 4.6 27.2 ± 4.7 26.6 ± 4.5 26.1 ± 4.3 25.2 ± 4.2 26.4 ± 4.4 26.0 ± 4.4 25.6 ± 4.1 25.4 ± 4.2 25.0 ± 4.1
Waist circumference, cm 94.5 ± 13 92.0 ± 12.9 89.4 ± 12.5 87.9 ± 12.1 85 ± 11.9 93.4 ± 12.7 91.4 ± 12.2 89.7 ± 11.7 89.1 ± 12.0 87.8 ± 11.8
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.3 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.9 1.4 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.7
GGT, U/L 39.6 ± 40.8 36.2 ± 34.4 32.5 ± 25 31.9 ± 25.2 28.5 ± 22.6 45.3 ± 72.1 35.3 ± 33.2 30.8 ± 28 30.9 ± 34.7 28.6 ± 31.1
ALT, U/L 30.8 ± 16.7 29.1 ± 15.7 27.7 ± 14.6 27.2 ± 15.6 26.1 ± 16.3 28.9 ± 22.3 26.9 ± 15.4 26.1 ± 13.8 24.8 ± 12.8 25.3 ± 14.8
AST, U/L 30.3 ± 14.8 28.7 ± 12.3 28.0 ± 8.7 27.5 ± 9.3 27.2 ± 7.6
  1. PAEE physical activity energy expenditure, TEE total energy expenditure, BMI body mass index, iqr interquartile range, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase
  2. *In each cohort, participants were categorised into five groups by quintiles (Q1 to Q5) of the Mediterranean diet score representing the levels of dietary adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern (defined by the Mediterranean diet pyramid) (possible range 0 to 15). A range of the points in each category is presented. Data are mean ± SD for continuous variables or percent for categorical variables, unless otherwise stated
  3. Due to some missing data, numbers do not always add to 100%. ‘Separated’ included divorced or widowed adults
  4. Alcohol consumption categorised as ‘abstainers’ (0 unit/week), ‘moderate’ (1–21 units/week for men, 1–14 for women), and ‘heavy drinkers’ (> 21 units/week for men, > 14 for women)
  5. §Metabolic syndrome defined according to the International Diabetic Federation