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Table 1 Baseline clinical features in the RIACE participants with valid information on vital status, stratified by BP status according to the 130/80 mmHg BP targets

From: Is resistant hypertension an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes? A prospective cohort study

Variable NT UTHT CHT UCHT RHT P
n (%) 2206 (14.09) 2378 (15.19) 3707 (23.68) 5014 (32.03) 2351 (15.02)  
Age, years 61.5 ± 11.7 64.3 ± 10.7 67.3 ± 10.0 68.0 ± 9.5 69.6 ± 8.7 < 0.0001
Gender, n (%)       < 0.0001
 Females 833 (37.76) 948 (39.87) 1592 (42.95) 2270 (45.27) 1111 (47.26)  
 Males 1373 (62.24) 1430 (60.13) 2115 (57.05) 2744 (54.73) 1240 (52.74)  
Smoking status, n (%)       < 0.0001
 Never 1220 (55.30) 1352 (56.85) 2059 (55.54) 2890 (57.64) 1328 (56.49)  
 Former 535 (24.25) 603 (25.36) 1084 (29.24) 1439 (28.70) 746 (31.73)  
 Current 451 (20.44) 423 (17.79) 564 (15.21) 685 (13.66) 277 (11.78)  
Diabetes duration, years 10.7 ± 9.4 11.9 ± 9.7 13.3 ± 10.2 14.2 ± 10.4 14.4 ± 10.2 < 0.0001
HbA1c, mmol/mol 58.7 ± 17.5 58.9 ± 16.3 58.6 ± 16.8 59.1 ± 15.8 59.6 ± 16.3 < 0.0001
Anti-hyperglycemic treatment, n (%)       < 0.0001
 Lifestyle 393 (17.82) 424 (17.83) 481 (12.98) 587 (11.71) 228 (9.70)  
 Non-insulin 1310 (59.38) 1470 (61.82) 2244 (60.53) 3225 (64.32) 1370 (58.27)  
 Insulin 503 (22.80) 484 (20.35) 982 (26.49) 1202 (23.97) 753 (32.03)  
BMI, kg/m2 27.29 ± 4.80 28.08 ± 4.72 29.08 ± 5.11 29.27 ± 5.09 30.61 ± 5.43 < 0.0001
Waist circumference, cm 99.1 ± 9.8 100.8 ± 9.6 102.7 ± 10.3 103.1 ± 10.3 105.8 ± 10.9 < 0.0001
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.21 (0.88, 1.73) 1.28 (0.93, 1.83) 1.36 (0.98, 1.92) 1.36 (0.99, 1.90) 1.46 (1.07, 2.00) < 0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 4.85 ± 0.96 4.94 ± 1.0 4.64 ± 1.0 4.80 ± 0.98 4.67 ± 0.96 < 0.0001
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.31 ± 0.36 1.34 ± 0.37 1.25 ± 0.35 1.29 ± 0.35 1.26 ± 0.34 < 0.0001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.89 ± 0.82 2.93 ± 0.85 2.67 ± 0.84 2.80 ± 0.84 2.66 ± 0.81 < 0.0001
Lipid-lowering therapy, n (%) 671 (30.42) 779 (32.76) 1945 (52.47) 2468 (49.22) 1375 (58.49) < 0.0001
Statins, n (%) 601 (27.24) 698 (29.35) 1804 (48.66) 2280 (45.47) 1271 (54.06) < 0.0001
Anti-platelet therapy, n (%) 402 (18.22) 454 (19.09) 1876 (50.61) 2167 (43.22) 1349 (57.38) < 0.0001
Anti-coagulant therapy, n (%) 25 (1.13) 31 (1.30) 226 (6.10) 180 (3.59) 207 (8.80) < 0.0001
Albuminuria, mg/24 h 10.3 (5.5, 18.9) 11.1 (5,8, 21.4) 13.8 (6.6, 37.2) 14.4 (7.0, 36.5) 19.8 (9.1, 73.4) < 0.0001
eGFR, ml·min−1·1.73 m−2 89.8 ± 18.4 86.9 ± 17.0 78.3 ± 21.3 78.6 ± 20.1 71.1 ± 22.6 < 0.0001
DKD phenotypes, n (%)       < 0.0001
 Alb/eGFR 1776 (80.51) 1861 (78.26) 2213 (59.70) 3068 (61.19) 1066 (45.34)  
 Alb+/eGFR 275 (12.47) 352 (14.80) 737 (19.88) 1046 (20.86) 556 (23.65)  
 Alb/eGFR+ 100 (4.53) 106 (4.46) 420 (11.33) 498 (9.93) 352 (14.97)  
 Alb+/eGFR+ 55 (2.49) 59 (2.48) 337 (9.09) 402 (8.02) 377 (16.04)  
DR, n (%)       < 0.0001
 No 1883 (85.36) 1957 (82.30) 2862 (77.21) 3799 (75.77) 1688 (71.80)  
 Non-advanced 193 (8.75) 245 (10.30) 496 (13.38) 683 (13.62) 327 (13.91)  
 Advanced 127 (5.76) 176 (7.40) 349 (9.41) 532 (10.61) 336 (14.29)  
CVD, n (%)       
 Any 214 (9.70) 253 (10.64) 1127 (30.40) 1196 (23.85) 830 (35.30) < 0.0001
 Acute myocardial infarction 67 (3.04) 68 (2.86) 627 (16.91) 525 (10.47) 455 (19.35) < 0.0001
 Coronary revascularization 63 (2.86) 69 (2.90) 588 (15.86) 468 (9.33) 391 (16.63) < 0.0001
 Any coronary event 107 (4.85) 113 (4.75) 830 (22.39) 756 (15.08) 590 (25.10) < 0.0001
 Stroke 28 (1.27) 38 (1.60) 147 (3.97) 173 (3.45) 127 (5.40) < 0.0001
 Carotid revascularization 54 (2.45) 72 (3.03) 227 (6.12) 313 (6.24) 190 (8.08) < 0.0001
 Any cerebrovascular event 79 (3.58) 109 (4.58) 346 (9.33) 458 (9.13) 300 (12.76) < 0.0001
 Ulcer/gangrene/amputation 50 (2.67) 54 (2.27) 154 (4.15) 175 (3.49) 123 (5.23) < 0.0001
 Lower limb revascularization 23 (1.04) 26 (1.09) 145 (3.91) 155 (3.09) 101 (4.30) < 0.0001
 Any peripheral event 67 (3.04) 75 (3.15) 258 (6.96) 288 (5.74) 195 (8.29) < 0.0001
 Aortic aneurysm 6 (0.27) 5 (0.21) 15 (0.40) 16 (0.32) 16 (0.68) 0.065
Cancer, n (%) 118 (5.35) 127 (5.34) 277 (7.47) 326 (6.50) 183 (7.78) < 0.0001
  1. Values are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables, and number of cases (percentage) for categorical variables. RIACE Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events, BP blood pressure, NT normotension, UTHT untreated hypertension, CHT controlled hypertension (on-target with 1, 2, or 3 drugs), UCHT uncontrolled hypertension (not on-target with 1 or 2 drugs), RHT resistant hypertension (on-target with > 4 drugs or not on-target with > 3 drugs), HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DKD diabetic kidney disease, Alb/eGFR no DKD, Alb+/eGFR albuminuric DKD with preserved eGFR, Alb/eGFR+ nonalbuminuric DKD, Alb+/eGFR+ albuminuric DKD with reduced eGFR, DR diabetic retinopathy, CVD cardiovascular disease