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Table 3 Associations (coefficient and standard error) of changes in school neighborhood food environments within 800-m straight-line buffer zones during 1998–2007 with child body mass index in 2007

From: Effects of school neighborhood food environments on childhood obesity at multiple scales: a longitudinal kindergarten cohort study in the USA

Food outlet type All (n = 7530) Boys (n = 3780) Girls (n = 3750) Urban (n = 5040) Non-urban (n = 2490)
Supermarket
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.21 (0.19) − 0.08 (0.22) − 0.26 (0.27) − 0.27 (0.23) − 0.15 (0.38)
 1998–2007
  Decreased − 0.08 (0.23) − 0.12 (0.26) − 0.07 (0.34) 0.02 (0.27) − 0.07 (0.48)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.02 (0.18) 0.03 (0.21) − 0.04 (0.25) 0.14 (0.20) − 0.35 (0.39)
Convenience store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.05 (0.19) − 0.08 (0.22) − 0.07 (0.27) − 0.19 (0.22) 0.18 (0.42)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.21 (0.25) 0.27 (0.28) 0.21 (0.36) 0.37 (0.30) − 0.05 (0.47)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.39* (0.17) 0.34 (0.20) 0.50* (0.25) 0.41* (0.21) 0.39 (0.36)
Full-service restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.06 (0.20) − 0.07 (0.23) − 0.10 (0.29) 0.09 (0.25) − 0.30 (0.38)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.02 (0.24) − 0.19 (0.28) 0.33 (0.35) − 0.10 (0.30) 0.12 (0.45)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.06 (0.18) − 0.39 (0.21) 0.36 (0.26) − 0.13 (0.23) − 0.03 (0.33)
Fast-food restaurant
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.07 (0.20) 0.05 (0.23) − 0.26 (0.28) − 0.09 (0.23) − 0.11 (0.43)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.31 (0.27) 0.38 (0.31) 0.30 (0.39) 0.20 (0.30) 0.72 (0.67)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.28 (0.18) 0.10 (0.20) 0.44 (0.26) 0.33 (0.20) 0.34 (0.41)
Retail bakery
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.07 (0.22) 0.04 (0.26) − 0.15 (0.32) − 0.21 (0.25) 0.54 (0.63)
 1998–2007
  Decreased − 0.43 (0.29) − 0.43 (0.34) − 0.48 (0.42) − 0.32 (0.32) − 0.58 (0.79)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.10 (0.20) 0.13 (0.24) − 0.46 (0.29) − 0.05 (0.22) 0.00 (0.60)
Dairy product store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.26 (0.29) − 0.58 (0.33) 0.04 (0.41) − 0.15 (0.31) − 1.30 (0.89)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.86* (0.39) 1.86*** (0.45) − 0.24 (0.57) 0.92* (0.42) 0.64 (1.40)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.11 (0.21) 0.27 (0.24) − 0.56 (0.30) − 0.07 (0.23) − 0.37 (0.50)
Health food store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.10 (0.28) − 0.18 (0.32) − 0.00 (0.41) − 0.14 (0.31) 0.34 (0.79)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.14 (0.36) 0.04 (0.42) 0.22 (0.52) 0.11 (0.39) 0.03 (1.17)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.06 (0.22) − 0.16 (0.26) 0.09 (0.31) − 0.07 (0.24) 0.00 (0.62)
Candy store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.01 (0.50) 0.02 (0.59) 0.06 (0.73) − 0.04 (0.53) − 1.89 (2.23)
 1998–2007
  Decreased − 0.36 (0.59) − 0.34 (0.70) − 0.32 (0.85) − 0.51 (0.62) 2.55 (2.39)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.11 (0.33) − 0.10 (0.39) 0.33 (0.47) 0.01 (0.35) 0.61 (0.90)
Fruit and vegetable market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.30 (0.49) 0.14 (0.56) 0.52 (0.73) 0.46 (0.52) 0.55 (1.60)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.45 (0.61) 1.19 (0.74) − 0.32 (0.89) 0.38 (0.64) − 0.98 (2.20)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.09 (0.31) − 0.02 (0.36) − 0.32 (0.47) 0.00 (0.34) − 0.92 (0.97)
Meat and fish market
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 0.22 (0.32) 0.42 (0.37) − 0.09 (0.47) 0.30 (0.36) − 0.19 (0.81)
 1998–2007
  Decreased − 0.28 (0.42) − 0.60 (0.49) 0.16 (0.63) − 0.27 (0.45) − 1.23 (1.51)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased 0.20 (0.25) − 0.16 (0.29) 0.63 (0.37) 0.16 (0.27) 0.32 (0.80)
Beverage store
 1998 (/km2)
  0 (ref)
  > 0 − 0.50 (0.38) − 0.49 (0.45) − 0.36 (0.54) − 0.55 (0.41) − 0.18 (1.20)
 1998–2007
  Decreased 0.31 (0.50) 0.14 (0.58) 0.47 (0.72) 0.35 (0.52) − 2.15 (3.15)
  Constant (ref)
  Increased − 0.21 (0.20) − 0.15 (0.23) − 0.32 (0.29) − 0.25 (0.22) − 0.38 (0.53)
  1. All models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental education, and urbanicity. Italicized numbers indicate statistical significance (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)
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