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Table 3 Association between ethnicity/immigration status and prediabetes incidence using glucose thresholds according to the World Health Organization and Diabetes Canada

From: Ethnic differences in prediabetes incidence among immigrants to Canada: a population-based cohort study

Study population, variable No. new cases of prediabetes Person-years of follow-up Crude incidence (no./100 person-years) Cumulative incidence (%)a Age, sex, and area income-adjusted HR (95% CI)b, c Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)c, d
Immigrants, ethnicity
 South Asian 16,247 570,336 4.89 23.62 1.87 (1.80–1.94) 1.95 (1.87–2.03)
 Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean 7612 331,207 3.98 20.39 1.57 (1.51–1.64) 1.61 (1.54–1.68)
 South-East Asian 6585 271,649 4.05 19.76 1.48 (1.42–1.55) 1.52 (1.46–1.59)
 Latin American 5526 263,672 3.55 17.55 1.32 (1.26–1.38) 1.33 (1.27–1.39)
 East Asian 15,103 608,425 3.69 17.88 1.15 (1.11–1.20) 1.20 (1.15–1.25)
 West Asian and Arab 5502 289,670 3.27 16.60 1.26 (1.21–1.32) 1.28 (1.22–1.34)
 Eastern European 6248 398,851 2.85 13.40 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 1.06 (1.01–1.11)
 Western European 3378 215,762 2.79 13.08 Referent Referent
Entire cohort, immigration status
 Immigrants to Canada 66,227 2,950,372 3.76 21.22 1.40 (1.38–1.41) 1.36 (1.35–1.37)
 Long-term Canadian residents 272,132 13,202,525 3.41 15.88 Referent NA
  1. New prediabetes cases based on any of the following criteria met on subsequent laboratory testing: (1) fasting glucose 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L, (2) 2-h glucose 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L on 75-g OGTT, or (3) HbA1c 6.0 to 6.4% (42 to 46 mmol/mol)
  2. aCumulative incidence is based on the cumulative incidence probability for prediabetes
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, and area income
  4. cCases censored at time when prediabetes definition was first met, if criteria for diabetes met (based on records from the Ontario Diabetes Database), lost health care coverage, died, or December 31, 2013
  5. dAmong immigrants, adjusted for age, sex, area income, education, ethnicity, marital status, immigration visa category, and duration