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Table 2 HRs (95% CI) of fixed and random effects introduced into models C, D and E. HRs reported are all from model E

From: The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care

  Female Male
Fixed effects
 Alcohol abuse 1.36 (1.25–1.48) 1.32 (1.25–1.39)
 Anxiety 1.10 (1.08–1.13) 1.10 (1.07–1.12)
 Left ventricular hypertrophy 1.65 (1.53–1.78) 1.67 (1.56–1.80)
 > 50 medical records in the year prior to the index date 1.30 (1.25–1.36) 1.25 (1.18–1.31)
 > 50 prescription items in the year prior to the index date 1.55 (1.51–1.59) 1.49 (1.44–1.54)
 Calendar time (by year) 0.96 (0.95–0.96) 0.96 (0.96–0.96)
Region (random effect)
 North East 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 1.09 (1.08–1.09)
 North west 1.17 (1.11–1.24) 1.14 (1.13–1.15)
 Yorkshire and the Humber 1.11 (1.05–1.19) 1.09 (1.08–1.10)
 East Midlands 1.00 (0.93–1.06) 0.99 (0.98–0.99)
 West Midlands 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 0.99 (0.99–1.00)
 East of England 0.94 (0.89 1.00) 0.94 (0.93–0.94)
 South west 0.98 (0.92 1.04) 0.99 (0.99–0.99)
 South Central 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 0.94 (0.94–0.95)
 London 0.89 (0.84–0.95) 0.88 (0.88–0.89)
 South East Coast 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 0.97 (0.97–0.97)