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Table 2 Basic descriptive and results of unadjusted logistic regression with select risk factors for all live births between January and December 2016 and neonatal deaths in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days for those who participated in the detailed interview

From: Distinct mortality patterns at 0–2 days versus the remaining neonatal period: results from population-based assessment in the Indian state of Bihar

Risk factor All live births, N = 19,877 (%) Neonatal mortality
0–2 days, N = 280 (%) Unadjusted OR for 0–2-day death (95% CI) 3–7 days, N = 100 (%) Unadjusted OR for 3–7-day deaths (95% CI) 8–27 days, N = 93 (%) Unadjusted OR for 8–27-day death (95% CI)
Socio-demographic
 Place of residence Rural 18,126 (91.2%) 265 (94.6%) 1.72 (1.02–2.90) 93 (93.0%) 1.29 (0.60–1.53) 89 (95.7%) 2.17 (0.80–5.92)
Urban 1751 (8.8%) 15 (5.4%) 1.00 7 (7.0%) 1.00 4 (4.3%) 1.00
 Wealth indexa Quartile 1 4938 (24.9%) 72 (25.7%) 1.49 (1.03–2.15) 17 (17.2%) 0.86 (0.45–1.65) 31 (33.3%) 2.63 (1.35–5.13)
Quartile 2 4935 (24.9%) 94 (33.6%) 1.96 (1.38–2.77) 24 (24.2%) 1.22 (0.68–2.22) 25 (26.9%) 2.13 (1.07–4.25)
Quartile 3 4970 (25.1%) 65 (23.2%) 1.34 (0.92–1.94) 38 (38.4%) 1.92 (1.12–3.30) 25 (26.9%) 2.11 (1.06–4.21)
Quartile 4 4986 (25.1%) 49 (17.5%) 1.00 20 (20.2%) 1.00 12 (12.9%) 1.00
 Sex of baby Girl 9669 (48.6%) 119 (42.5%) 1.00 48 (48.0%) 1.00 39 (41.9%) 1.00
Boy 10,208 (51.4%) 161 (57.5%) 1.29 (1.01–1.63) 52 (52.0%) 1.03 (0.69–1.53) 54 (58.1%) 1.32 (0.87–1.99)
Maternal
 Maternal ageb 15–19 years 924 (4.7%) 20 (7.1%) 1.00 6 (6.0%) 1.00 5 (5.4%) 1.00
20–24 years 8287 (41.7%) 130 (46.4%) 0.72 (0.45–1.16) 52 (52.0%) 0.96 (0.41–2.24) 39 (41.9%) 0.86 (0.34–2.20)
25–29 years 7570 (38.1%) 85 (30.4%) 0.51 (0.31–0.84) 28 (28.0%) 0.56 (0.23–1.36) 30 (32.3%) 0.72 (0.28–1.86)
≥ 30 years 3093 (15.6%) 45 (16.1%) 0.67 (0.39–1.14) 14 (14.0%) 0.69 (0.26–1.80) 19 (20.4%) 1.13 (0.42–3.02)
 Any tobacco use ever Yes 518 (2.6%) 13 (4.6%) 1.84 (1.05–3.23) 5 (5.0%) 2.00 (0.81–4.94) 2 (2.2%) 0.83 (0.20–3.40)
No 19,359 (97.4%) 267 (95.4%) 1.00 95 (95.0%) 1.00 91 (97.9%) 1.00
 Primiparity Yes 4733 (23.8%) 87 (31.1%) 1.45 (1.12–1.87) 34 (34.0%) 1.66 (1.10–2.52) 22 (23.7%) 1.00 (0.62–1.62)
No 15,144 (76.2%) 193 (68.9%) 1.00 66 (66.0%) 1.00 71 (76.3%) 1.00
 Diabetes mellitus irrespective of pregnancyc Yes 62 (0.3%) 0 (0.0%) NA 0 (0.0%) NA 0 (0.0%) NA
No 19,452 (99.7%) 275 (100.0%) NA 99 (100.0%) NA 91 (100.0%) NA
 Hypertension irrespective of pregnancyd Yes 335 (1.7%) 6 (2.2%) 1.28 (0.57–2.89) 2 (2.0%) 1.19 (0.29–4.84) 1 (1.1%) 0.63 (0.09–4.55)
No 19,209 (98.3%) 270 (97.8%) 1.00 97 (98.0%) 1.00 91 (98.9%) 1.00
Pregnancy
 At least one antenatal care visit during pregnancye Yes 16,151 (81.3%) 228 (81.4%) 1.00 74 (74.0%) 1.00 74 (79.6%) 1.00
No 3725 (18.7%) 52 (18.6%) 0.99 (0.73–1.34) 26 (26.0%) 1.53 (0.98–2.39) 19 (20.4%) 1.12 (0.67–1.85)
 Received 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancyf Yes 16,091 (81.2%) 206 (73.6%) 1.00 74 (74.0%) 1.00 70 (75.3%) 1.00
No 3735 (18.8%) 74 (26.4%) 1.56 (1.19–2.04) 26 (26.0%) 1.53 (0.98–2.39) 23 (24.7%) 1.43 (0.89–2.30)
 Consumed iron folic acid tablets during pregnancyg Yes 8007 (40.5%) 105 (37.6%) 1.00 35 (35.0%) 1.00 36 (38.7%) 1.00
No 11,752 (59.5%) 174 (62.5%) 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 65 (65.0%) 1.27 (0.84–1.92) 57 (61.3%) 1.08 (0.71–1.64)
 Pregnancy with multiple foetuses Yes 336 (1.7%) 21 (7.5%) 4.96 (3.14–7.85) 12 (12.0%) 7.80 (4.13–14.75) 17 (18.3%) 16.04 (9.47–27.19)
No 19,541 (98.3%) 259 (92.5%) 1.00 88 (88.0%) 1.00 76 (81.7%) 1.00
 Hypertension in the last trimester of pregnancyh Yes 504 (2.6%) 14 (5.1%) 2.06 (1.20–3.56) 2 (2.0%) 0.79 (0.19–3.22) 4 (4.6%) 1.84 (0.67–5.02)
No 19,908 (97.4%) 261 (94.9%) 1.00 97 (98.0%) 1.00 84 (95.5%) 1.00
 Malaria in last 3 months of pregnancyi Yes 449 (2.3%) 4 (1.5%) 0.62 (0.23–1.67) 3 (3.0%) 1.32 (0.42–4.19) 1 (1.1%) 0.47 (0.07–3.37)
No 19,064 (97.7%) 272 (98.6%) 1.00 96 (97.0%) 1.00 90 (98.9%) 1.00
 Syphilis during pregnancyj Yes 83 (0.4%) 1 (0.4%) 0.86 (0.12–6.17) 0 (0.0%) NA 0 (0.0%) NA
Do not know 1151 (5.8%) 17 (6.1%) 1.05 (0.64–1.72) 8 (8.0%) 1.41 (0.68–2.92) 6 (6.5%) 1.12 (0.49–2.57)
No 18,642 (93.8%) 262 (93.6%) 1.00 92 (92.0%) 1.00 87 (93.6%) 1.00
 Fever in the last 3 months of pregnancyk Yes 3547 (18.0%) 33 (11.9%) 0.61 (0.42–0.88) 18 (18.0%) 0.99 (0.60–1.65) 17 (18.3%) 1.01 (0.60–1.71)
No 16,130 (82.0%) 244 (88.1%) 1.00 82 (82.0%) 1.00 76 (81.7%) 1.00
 Convulsion in last 3 months of pregnancyl Yes 2215 (11.3%) 36 (13.0%) 1.18 (0.83–1.68) 10 (10.2%) 0.89 (0.46–1.72) 7 (7.5%) 0.64 (0.29–1.38)
No 17,333 (88.7%) 240 (87.0%) 1.00 88 (89.8%) 1.00 86 (92.5%) 1.00
 Mother is informed the baby was not growing adequately inside the wombm Yes 679 (3.5%) 18 (6.5%) 1.33 (0.42–4.18) 3 (3.1%) 0.91 (0.29–2.89) 8 (8.7%) 2.71 (1.31–5.63)
No 18,959 (96.5%) 261 (93.6%) 1.00 93 (96.9%) 1.00 84 (91.3%) 1.00
 Gestation period ≤ 8 months 477 (2.4%) 73 (26.1%) 16.75 (12.61–22.27) 14 (14.0%) 7.98 (4.49–14.15) 16 (17.2%) 10.57 (6.11–18.29)
> 8 months 19,400 (97.6%) 207 (73.9%) 1.00 86 (86.0%) 1.00 77 (82.8%) 1.00
Labour
 Mother had come for delivery earlier but was asked to come later for delivery (deferred deliveryn Yes 160 (0.8%) 3 (1.1%) 1.33 (0.42–4.18) 3 (3.1%) 3.97 (1.24–12.66) 4 (4.5%) 5.98 (2.17–16.51)
No 19,515 (99.2%) 277 (98.9%) 1.00 94 (96.9%) 1.00 85 (95.5%) 1.00
 Spontaneous labouro Yes 14,637 (74.1%) 189 (68.2%) 1.00 65 (67.0%) 1.00 62 (69.7%) 1.00
No 5120 (25.9%) 88 (31.8%) 1.34 (1.04–1.73) 32 (33.0%) 1.42 (0.93–2.17) 27 (30.3%) 1.25 (0.80–1.97)
 Foul-smelling liquorp Yes 976 (4.9%) 20 (7.2%) 1.50 (0.95–2.38) 8 (8.1%) 1.71 (0.83–3.53) 7 (7.7%) 1.62 (0.75–3.52)
No 18,768 (95.1%) 258 (92.8%) 1.00 91 (91.9%) 1.00 84 (92.3%) 1.00
 Labour for more than 12 hq Yes 3040 (15.4%) 47 (17.0%) 1.13 (0.82–1.54) 17 (17.2%) 1.14 (0.68–1.93) 16 (17.6%) 1.18 (0.69–2.02)
No 16,720 (84.6%) 230 (83.0%) 1.00 82 (82.8%) 1.00 75 (82.4%) 1.00
Delivery
 Place of deliveryr Public 10,623 (53.5%) 120 (42.9%) 1.00 54 (54.0%)   42 (45.2%) 1.00
Private 3314 (16.7%) 76 (27.1%) 2.05 (1.54–2.75) 22 (22.0%) 1.32 (0.81–2.18) 23 (24.7%) 1.78 (1.07–2.97)
Home 5922 (29.8%) 84 (30.0%) 1.26 (0.95–1.67) 24 (24.0%) 0.80 (0.49–1.29) 28 (30.1%) 1.20 (0.74–1.94)
 Mother had gone to a health facility for delivery but delivered in another facility (referred delivery)s Yes 781 (5.6%) 29 (14.9%) 3.02 (2.02–4.51) 6 (7.9%) 1.48 (0.64–3.43) 8 (12.5%) 2.49 (1.18–5.24)
No 13,154 (94.4%) 166 (85.1%) 1.00 70 (92.1%) 1.00 56 (87.5%) 1.00
 Vaginal deliveryt Yes 17,867 (90.0%) 243 (87.1%) 0.75 (0.53–1.07) 82 (82.0%) 0.50 (0.30–0.84) 81 (89.0%) 0.89 (0.46–1.73)
No 1991 (10.0%) 36 (12.9%) 1.00 18 (18.0%) 1.00 10 (11.0%) 1.00
 Push/pull done during delivery by the health provideru Yes 965 (5.0%) 40 (14.6%) 3.38 (2.40–4.76) 15 (15.2%) 3.57 (2.06–6.22) 4 (4.4%) 0.92 (0.34–2.51)
No 18,533 (95.1%) 234 (85.4%) 1.00 84 (84.9%) 1.00 87 (95.6%) 1.00
 Entangled cord around the baby’s neckv Yes 761 (3.8%) 21 (7.5%) 2.04 (1.30–3.21) 7 (7.0%) 1.89 (0.87–4.10) 4 (4.3%) 1.15 (0.42–3.14)
Do not know 1748 (8.8%) 20 (7.2%) 0.83 (0.53–1.32) 7 (7.0%) 0.81 (0.37–1.74) 8 (8.6%) 0.98 (0.47–2.02)
No 17,351 (87.4%) 238 (85.3%) 1.00 86 (86.0%) 1.00 81 (87.1%) 1.00
 Breech position of the babyw Yes 633 (3.2%) 30 (11.0%) 3.82 (2.59–5.63) 6 (6.1%) 2.00 (0.87–4.60) 7 (7.5%) 2.55 (1.17–5.53)
No 18,888 (96.8%) 243 (89.0%) 1.00 93 (93.9%) 1.00 86 (92.5%) 1.00
 Antiseptic cord care Yes 4966 (25.0%) 31 (11.1%) 1.00 23 (23.0%) 1.00 20 (21.5%) 1.00
No 11,901 (59.9%) 183 (65.4%) 2.49 (1.70–3.64) 61 (61.0%) 1.12 (0.69–1.81) 62 (66.7%) 1.31 (0.79–2.17)
Do not know 3010 (15.1%) 66 (23.6%) 3.57 (2.32–5.48) 16 (16.0%) 1.17 (0.62–2.21) 11 (11.8%) 0.92 (0.44–1.93)
 Birthweight of the baby (kg)x ≥ 2.5 11,401 (57.9%) 57 (37.8%) 1.00 38 (43.2%) 1 37 (41.6%) 1
< 2.5 2037 (10.4%) 27 (17.9%) 2.67 (1.69–4.24) 19 (21.6%) 2.84 (1.63–4.93) 30 (33.7%) 4.66 (2.87–7.56)
Never weighted 4704 (23.9%) 53 (35.1%) 2.18 (1.52–3.12) 23 (26.1%) 1.32 (0.80–2.17) 18 (20.2%) 1.10 (0.64–1.91)
Do not know if weighted 1547 (7.9%) 14 (9.3%) 1.74 (0.98–3.11) 8 (9.1%) 1.39 (0.66–2.95) 4 (4.5%) 0.74 (0.27–2.07)
Postnatal care
 Baby put in an incubator after birthy Yes 984 (5.1%)    31 (31.0%) 8.68 (5.65–13.33) 25 (26.9%) 7.27 (4.57–11.55)
No 18,482 (94.9%)    69 (69.0%) 1.00 68 (73.1%) 1.00
 Received delayed bathing, skin-to-skin care, and immediate breastfeedingz Yes 2124 (10.9%)    6 (6.3%) 1.00 7 (7.8%) 1.00
No 17,435 (89.1%)    89 (93.7%) 1.81 (0.79–4.14) 83 (92.2%) 1.45 (0.67–3.14)
 Received postnatal care within 1 week of birth Yes 7009 (35.8%)    41 (41.0%) 1.00 35 (37.6%) 1.00
No 12,588 (64.2%)    59 (59.0%) 0.80 (0.54–1.19) 58 (62.4%) 0.92 (0.60–1.40)
 Illness and treatment during neonatal periodaa No illness 15,862 (90.0%)    25 (25.5%) 1.00 39 (41.9%) 1.00
Untreated illness 1381 (7.0%)    38 (38.8%) 17.92 (10.79–29.78) 22 (23.7%) 6.75 (3.99–11.41)
Ill and out-patient treatment sought 1936 (9.9%)    12 (12.2%) 3.95 (1.98–7.88) 14 (15.1%) 2.97 (1.61–5.48)
Illness that required hospitalization 409 (2.1%)    23 (23.5%) 37.75 (21.24–67.09) 18 (19.4%) 19.81 (11.23–34.96)
  1. Data not available for a48 (0.24%) in 0–2 and 3–7 days and 47 (0.24%) in 8–27 days; b3 (0.02%) in all; c363 (1.83%), 358 (1.83%), and 357 (1.83%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; d333 (1.68%), 329 (1.68%), and 328 (1.68%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; e1 (0.01%) in all; f51 (0.26%) in all; g118 (0.59%) in 0–2 and 117 (0.60%) in each 3–7 and 8–27 days; h275 (1.38%), 270 (1.38%), and 269 (1.38%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; i364 (1.83%), 360 (1.84%), and 359 (1.84%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; j1 (0.01%) in all; k200 (1.01%) in 0–2 and 197 (1.01%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days; l329 (1.66%), 325 (1.66%), and 323 (1.66%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; m239 (1.20%), 238 (1.22%), and 234 (1.20%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; n202 (1.02%) in 0–2 and 3–7 days and 199 (1.02%) in 8–27 days; o120 (0.60%), 117 (0.60%), and 114 (0.59%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; p133 (0.67%), 131 (0.67%), and 130 (0.67%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; q117 (0.59%), 114 (0.59%), and 113 (0.59%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; r18 (0.19%) in all; sdata shown only for women who delivered in a health facility; data not available for 2 (0.01%) in 0–2 and 1 (0.01%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days; t19 (0.10%) in 0–2 and 18 (0.10%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days; u379 (1.91%), 373 (1.90%), and 372 (1.91%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; v17 (0.09%) in 0–2 and 16 (0.08%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days; w356 (1.79%), 349 (1.79%), and 348 (1.79%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; ×188 (0.95%), 59 (0.30%), and 47 (0.24%) in 0–2, 3–7, and 8–27 days, respectively; y131 (0.67%) in both; z38 (0.19%) and 33 (0.17%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days, respectively; and aa9 (0.05%) and 7 (0.04%) in 3–7 and 8–27 days, respectively
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval