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Table 6 Global and regional stroke burden and mortality attributable to air pollution in 2017

From: Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and worldwide burden: an ecological analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

  All-type stroke Ischaemic stroke Intracerebral haemorrhage Subarachnoid haemorrhage
Number (thousand) Age-standardised rate Number (thousand) Age-standardised rate Number (thousand) Age-standardised rate Number (thousand) Age-standardised rate
Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Female to male ratio Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Female to male ratio Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Female to male ratio Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Mean (95% uncertainty interval) Female to male ratio
DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) per 100,000 people
 Global             
  Air pollution 16,385.6 (13,224.6 to 19,514.3) 201.9 (164.1 to 240.1) 0.7 5784.9 (4581.1 to 6995.0) 72.2 (57.4 to 87.3) 0.8 8967.4 (7270.6 to 10,723.3) 109.7 (89.3 to 130.8) 0.7 1633.3 (1272.4 to 2021.0) 19.9 (15.6 to 24.6) 0.9
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 10,515.5 (8248.0 to 12,877.4) 129.8 (101.6 to 159.0) 0.6 3950.2 (3040.2 to 4873.9) 49.4 (38.2 to 61.0) 0.7 5523.0 (4340.7 to 6835.3) 67.7 (53.2 to 83.2) 0.5 1042.2 (809.3 to 1314.3) 12.7 (9.9 to 16.0) 0.8
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 5870.2 (4573.4 to 7263.3) 72.0 (56.0 to 89.0) 1.0 1834.6 (1390.5 to 2329.5) 22.8 (17.3 to 28.9) 1.1 3444.4 (2660.7 to 4305.5) 42.0 (32.6 to 52.6) 0.9 591.2 (443.5 to 776.6) 7.2 (5.4 to 9.4) 1.1
 World Bank low income
  Air pollution 1233.7 (1026.6 to 1436.3) 372.2 (310.0 to 434.3) 1.0 346.8 (277.8 to 422.1) 117.0 (93.5 to 142.3) 1.3 785.9 (644.4 to 931.4) 229.0 (187.9 to 271.2) 0.9 100.9 (70.7 to 148.7) 26.2 (18.4 to 38.9) 0.8
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 257.8 (193.9 to 334.5) 78.5 (58.5 to 102.7) 0.6 73.5 (53.8 to 97.7) 25.0 (18.0 to 33.3) 0.8 161.9 (121.9 to 210.7) 47.6 (35.9 to 63.0) 0.5 22.4 (14.5 to 33.8) 5.9 (3.8 to 9.0) 0.5
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 975.9 (804.3 to 1161.0) 293.8 (241.9 to 349.1) 1.1 273.3 (215.0 to 339.1) 92.0 (71.8 to 114.4) 1.5 624.1 (505.2 to 755.4) 181.4 (145.9 to 219.7) 1.0 78.6 (53.5 to 116.6) 20.3 (13.9 to 30.6) 0.8
 World Bank lower middle income
  Air pollution 6858.7 (5569.0 to 8122.8) 282.1 (230.7 to 332.5) 0.8 2210.7 (1731.5 to 2754.2) 98.6 (76.9 to 121.9) 0.9 3864.7 (3106.8 to 4631.0) 154.2 (123.9 to 185.2) 0.8 783.2 (598.3 to 991.4) 29.3 (22.4 to 37.3) 1.0
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 3579.6 (2832.0 to 4445.7) 147.4 (116.4 to 182.6) 0.7 1215.2 (931.1 to 1532.2) 54.1 (41.6 to 68.1) 0.7 1961.2 (1538.8 to 2471.9) 78.2 (61.4 to 98.8) 0.6 403.2 (299.8 to 529.0) 15.1 (11.2 to 19.8) 0.8
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 3279.2 (2552.6 to 4049.6) 134.7 (105.1 to 165.7) 1.1 995.6 (753.2 to 1285.3) 44.5 (34.0 to 56.9) 1.2 1903.5 (1466.3 to 2394.9) 76.0 (58.7 to 95.4) 1.0 380.1 (281.3 to 507.2) 14.2 (10.6 to 19.0) 1.2
 World Bank upper middle income
  Air pollution 7302.6 (5851.4 to 8792.7) 220.8 (177.6 to 265.2) 0.6 2793.7 (2192.9 to 3426.0) 85.9 (67.6 to 105.6) 0.7 3912.0 (3133.7 to 4715.4) 117.0 (94.1 to 140.3) 0.6 596.9 (460.3 to 731.4) 17.9 (13.9 to 21.8) 0.8
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 5740.9 (4467.1 to 7074.4) 173.7 (136.2 to 213.7) 0.6 2249.4 (1720.3 to 2798.2) 69.2 (53.2 to 86.0) 0.6 3021.3 (2361.5 to 3694.9) 90.4 (71.0 to 110.6) 0.5 470.2 (364.2 to 588.9) 14.1 (10.9 to 17.5) 0.7
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 1561.7 (1139.5 to 2070.9) 47.1 (34.6 to 62.7) 0.9 544.3 (394.6 to 729.0) 16.7 (12.2 to 22.5) 0.9 890.7 (645.6 to 1181.3) 26.6 (19.6 to 35.4) 0.8 126.7 (91.7 to 169.8) 3.8 (2.8 to 5.0) 1.1
 World Bank high income
  Air pollution 884.9 (659.1 to 1137.8) 43.9 (32.6 to 55.8) 0.7 395.6 (288.5 to 517.8) 17.9 (13.3 to 23.3) 0.7 345.0 (257.0 to 445.4) 17.8 (13.1 to 22.8) 0.6 144.3 (104.1 to 188.1) 8.3 (6.0 to 10.7) 1.1
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 861.6 (640.1 to 1107.5) 42.8 (31.7 to 54.6) 0.7 383.8 (279.6 to 506.2) 17.3 (12.8 to 22.6) 0.7 336.7 (250.1 to 433.2) 17.3 (12.8 to 22.4) 0.6 141.2 (102.0 to 184.3) 8.1 (5.9 to 10.4) 1.0
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 23.2 (15.3 to 33.9) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.7) 1.1 11.8 (7.6 to 17.5) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) 1.2 8.3 (5.5 to 12.3) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6) 0.9 3.2 (2.1 to 4.6) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) 1.7
Deaths per 100,000 people
 Global
  Air pollution 676.8 (550.5 to 806.6) 8.6 (7.0 to 10.3) 0.7 264.8 (209.1 to 322.5) 3.4 (2.7 to 4.2) 0.8 358.5 (291.8 to 427.7) 4.5 (3.6 to 5.4) 0.7 53.6 (42.7 to 65.3) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) 0.9
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 444.9 (346.0 to 549.3) 5.7 (4.4 to 7.0) 0.6 183.5 (139.9 to 228.2) 2.4 (1.8 to 3.0) 0.7 226.4 (176.0 to 279.9) 2.8 (2.2 to 3.5) 0.6 35.0 (27.3 to 44.1) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6) 0.7
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 231.8 (179.6 to 287.2) 2.9 (2.3 to 3.6) 1.0 81.2 (62.4 to 103.8) 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3) 1.1 132.1 (101.5 to 164.5) 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) 1.0 18.5 (13.9 to 24.3) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 1.1
 World Bank low income
  Air pollution 45.1 (37.7 to 52.9) 16.2 (13.5 to 19.2) 1.0 14.5 (11.4 to 17.9) 5.9 (4.7 to 7.3) 1.3 27.7 (22.8 to 32.8) 9.4 (7.8 to 11.2) 0.9 2.8 (1.9 to 4.3) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3) 0.7
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 9.5 (7.1 to 12.5) 3.5 (2.5 to 4.5) 0.6 3.1 (2.2 to 4.2) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.7) 0.8 5.8 (4.4 to 7.7) 2.0 (1.5 to 2.6) 0.6 0.7 (0.4 to 1.0) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) 0.5
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 35.5 (28.9 to 42.3) 12.8 (10.4 to 15.2) 1.1 11.4 (8.7 to 14.2) 4.7 (3.6 to 5.8) 1.5 21.9 (17.7 to 26.5) 7.4 (6.0 to 9.0) 1.0 2.2 (1.5 to 3.4) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.0) 0.8
 World Bank lower middle income
  Air pollution 262.0 (215.1 to 311.6) 12.3 (10.1 to 14.7) 0.9 97.2 (76.5 to 121.1) 5.1 (4.0 to 6.3) 0.9 141.5 (113.5 to 169.5) 6.3 (5.1 to 7.5) 0.8 23.4 (18.0 to 30.1) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.2) 1.0
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 136.7 (107.0 to 169.4) 6.4 (5.0 to 8.0) 0.7 53.1 (40.7 to 67.2) 2.8 (2.1 to 3.5) 0.7 71.6 (56.3 to 90.2) 3.2 (2.5 to 4.0) 0.6 12.0 (9.0 to 16.0) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 0.8
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 125.4 (97.5 to 155.0) 5.9 (4.6 to 7.3) 1.1 44.1 (33.9 to 56.7) 2.3 (1.8 to 2.9) 1.2 69.9 (53.5 to 87.5) 3.1 (2.4 to 3.9) 1.0 11.4 (8.5 to 15.1) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.6) 1.2
 World Bank upper middle income
  Air pollution 319.5 (254.3 to 386.8) 10.2 (8.0 to 12.3) 0.7 128.9 (99.8 to 160.6) 4.2 (3.3 to 5.2) 0.7 168.7 (134.7 to 202.4) 5.3 (4.2 to 6.3) 0.6 21.9 (16.9 to 26.8) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) 0.8
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 251.1 (193.6 to 309.2) 8.0 (6.1 to 9.8) 0.6 104.3 (79.2 to 130.1) 3.4 (2.6 to 4.3) 0.6 129.6 (100.5 to 158.7) 4.0 (3.2 to 5.0) 0.5 17.2 (13.1 to 21.4) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 0.7
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 68.5 (50.2 to 91.3) 2.2 (1.6 to 2.9) 0.9 24.6 (18.1 to 32.7) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.9 39.1 (28.5 to 52.2) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.6) 0.9 4.7 (3.4 to 6.3) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 1.1
 World Bank high income
  Air pollution 45.6 (33.5 to 59.2) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) 0.7 22.5 (16.0 to 30.5) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.7 18.0 (13.3 to 23.3) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 0.6 5.1 (3.9 to 6.6) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3) 1.0
  Ambient particulate matter pollution 44.4 (32.6 to 58.0) 1.8 (1.4 to 2.4) 0.7 21.8 (15.5 to 29.6) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.7 17.6 (12.9 to 22.8) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 0.6 5.0 (3.8 to 6.5) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 1.0
  Household air pollution from solid fuels 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) 0.1 (0.0 to 0.1) 1.2 0.7 (0.4 to 1.0) 0.0 (0.0 to 0.0) 1.3 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6) 0.0 (0.0 to 0.0) 1.0 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.0 (0.0 to 0.0) 1.7
  1. Data were extracted from [8]. Rates are defined per 100,000 people