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Table 2 Observational association of 25(OH)D with risk of vascular diseases in CKB, CGPS, and CCHS

From: Vitamin D and cause-specific vascular disease and mortality: a Mendelian randomisation study involving 99,012 Chinese and 106,911 European adults

Diseases Continuous 25(OH)D per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L) P for trend
No. of all events HR (95% CI) Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
CKB
 Major vascular event 3868 1.02(0.98,1.07) 1.00 1.00(0.89,1.12) 1.08(0.95,1.22) 1.03(0.90,1.18) 0.344
 Major coronary event 1024 0.98(0.89,1.07) 1.00 0.89(0.71,1.13) 0.99(0.78,1.27) 0.85(0.66,1.12) 0.614
 Myocardial infarction 662 0.99(0.89,1.12) 1.00 0.94(0.69,1.27) 1.05(0.77,1.43) 0.99(0.71,1.38) 0.925
 Stroke 2982 1.04(0.99,1.10) 1.00 1.01(0.89,1.15) 1.08(0.94,1.24) 1.08(0.93,1.26) 0.154
 Ischaemic stroke 1776 0.99(0.93,1.07) 1.00 0.95(0.81,1.11) 1.04(0.88,1.23) 0.96(0.79,1.16) 0.882
 Intracerebral haemorrhage 1308 1.09(1.01,1.18) 1.00 1.04(0.84,1.29) 1.08(0.86,1.35) 1.19(0.93,1.51) 0.029
 Subarachnoid haemorrhage 56 1.24(0.83,1.85) 1.00 1.05(0.37,2.97) 0.42(0.10,1.72) 1.38(0.42,4.54) 0.291
 Ischaemic heart disease 1024 0.98(0.89,1.07) 1.00 0.90(0.71,1.15) 1.04(0.81,1.32) 0.84(0.64,1.10) 0.596
CGPS and CCHS
 Cardiovascular disease 12,110 0.90(0.88,0.93) 1.00 0.92(0.86,0.98) 0.85(0.79,0.91) 0.79(0.73,0.86) 1.3 × 10−9
 Myocardial infarction 4316 0.88(0.84,0.93) 1.00 0.86(0.77,0.96) 0.81(0.72,0.91) 0.74(0.65,0.85) 5.8 × 10−10
 Stroke 4490 0.93(0.90,0.98) 1.00 0.97(0.87,1.08) 0.87(0.77,0.98) 0.89(0.78,1.02) 0.022
 Ischaemic stroke 3766 0.93(0.88,0.98) 1.00 0.98(0.87,1.11) 0.84(0.73,0.96) 0.90(0.78,1.04) 0.028
 Intracerebral haemorrhage 542 1.05(0.90,1.19) 1.00 0.96(0.69,1.33) 1.14(0.82,1.61) 0.96(0.65,1.41) 0.87
 Ischaemic heart disease 9362 0.90(0.86,0.93) 1.00 0.91(0.84,0.98) 0.86(0.79,0.93) 0.77(0.70,0.84) 1.4 × 10−11
  1. Multivariable cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the association between quartile groups of 25(OH)D concentrations and risk of vascular diseases
  2. All values are adjusted for age (years), sex (male or female), smoking status (current smoker), alcohol intake (current drinker), season, region, SBP, and physical activity (low activity) in CKB
  3. All values are adjusted for age (years), sex (male or female), latitude, season, SBP, physical activity (METs, h/day), smoking status (never smoker, occasional smoker, former smoker, or regular smoker), and alcohol intake (non-drinker, occasional drinker, former drinker, or regular drinker) in CGPS and CCHS