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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population, stratified by age

From: Comparing the prognostic value of geriatric health indicators: a population-based study

  < 78 years old
N = 1782 (53.0%)
≥ 78 years old
N = 1581 (47.0%)
p value Total
N = 3363
Age, mean (SD) 65.5 (4.8) 85.1 (6.1) < 0.001 74.7 (11.2)
Sex (female), n (%) 1024 (57.4) 1158 (73.2) < 0.001 2182 (64.9)
Education*
 Elementary, n (%) 154 (8.6) 451 (28.5) < 0.001 590 (17.7)
 High school, n (%) 817 (45.9) 848 (53.7) 1651 (49.6)
 University, n (%) 811 (45.5) 282 (17.8) 1090 (32.7)
MMSE, mean (SD) 29.0 (2.1) 25.2 (7.4) < 0.001 27.6 (4.9)
MMSE < 24, N (%) 25 (1.4) 348 (22.0) < 0.001 462 (14.7)
≥ 1 impaired ADL, n (%) 26 (1.5) 303 (19.2) < 0.001 283 (8.6)
Frailty index
 ≤ 0.08, n (%) 1390 (78.0) 436 (27.6) < 0.001 1826 (54.3)
 0.08–0.25, n (%) 375 (21.0) 856 (54.1) 1231 (36.6)
 ≥ 0.25, n (%) 17 (1.0) 289 (18.3) 306 (9.1)
 Median (IQR) 0.04 (0.05) 0.12 (0.14) < 0.001 0.07 (0.09)
Frailty phenotype
 Robust, n (%) 972 (54.6) 319 (20.2) < 0.001 1291 (38.4)
 Pre-frail, n (%) 738 (41.4) 681 (43.0) 1419 (42.2)
 Frail, n (%) 72 (4.0) 581 (36.8) 653 (19.4)
Health assessment tool
 ≥ 6.6, n (%) 1672 (93.8) 792 (50.1)   2464 (73.3)
 3.3–6.6, n (%) 94 (5.3) 506 (32.0) < 0.001 600 (17.8)
 ≤ 3.3, n (%) 16 (0.9) 283 (17.9)   299 (8.9)
 Median (IQR) 9 (0.8) 6.5 (4.4) < 0.001 8.6 (2.6)
Multimorbidity
 0 chronic dis., n (%) 97 (5.4) 9 (0.6) < 0.001 106 (3.1)
 1 chronic dis., n (%) 289 (16.2) 37 (2.3) 326 (9.7)
 2+ chronic dis., n (%) 1396 (78.4) 1535 (97.1) 2931 (87.1)
 Median (IQR) 3 (2) 5 (4) < 0.001 4 (3)
Walking speed
 < 1.0 m/s, n (%) 267 (15.0) 1112 (70.3) < 0.001 1379 (50.0)
 < 0.8 m/s, n (%) 141 (7.9) 890 (56.3) < 0.001 1031 (30.7)
 Median (IQR) 1.2 (0.5) 0.6 (0.6) < 0.001 1 (0.6)
  1. Abbreviations: n number, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination