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Table 2 Study characteristics – quality assessment

From: Drug-resistant enteric fever worldwide, 1990 to 2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study quality characteristics Number of studies (%)
Study designa
 Clinical trial 16 (4.0)
 Prospective 155 (38.7)
 Retrospective 230 (57.4)
Sample size
 10-29 63 (16.4)
 30-99 137 (35.7)
 >100 184 (47.9)
Method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
 Disk-diffusion 183 (47.7)
 Disk-diffusion & MIC determination 98 (25.5)
 Microdilution 26 (6.8)
 E-test 9 (2.3)
 Automated methodsb 7 (1.8)
 Multiple MIC determination methods 6 (1.6)
 Not stated 55 (14.3)
Guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testingc
 BSAC/EUCAST 11 (2.8)
 CLSI/NCCLS 200 (51.4)
 Other 12 (3.1)
 Not stated 166 (42.7)
Version of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines stated
 Stated 168 (43.8)
 Not stated 216 (56.3)
Internal quality control reported
 Yes 122 (31.8)
 No 262 (68.2)
External quality assessment (EQA) participation reported
 International EQA 5 (1.3)
 National EQA 2 (0.5)
 Results confirmed by national or international surveillance laboratory 23 (6)
 Not stated 354 (92.2)
  1. aOne article combined the report of a retrospective and a prospective study
  2. bAutomated systems include VITEK 2, Phoenix 100 and Rapid ATB tests
  3. cSix studies used the CLSI/NCCS and the BSAC/EUCAST guidelines for different antibiotics so contributed to the numbers twice