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Table 2 Study characteristics – quality assessment

From: Drug-resistant enteric fever worldwide, 1990 to 2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study quality characteristicsNumber of studies (%)
Study designa
 Clinical trial16 (4.0)
 Prospective155 (38.7)
 Retrospective230 (57.4)
Sample size
 10-2963 (16.4)
 30-99137 (35.7)
 >100184 (47.9)
Method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing
 Disk-diffusion183 (47.7)
 Disk-diffusion & MIC determination98 (25.5)
 Microdilution26 (6.8)
 E-test9 (2.3)
 Automated methodsb7 (1.8)
 Multiple MIC determination methods6 (1.6)
 Not stated55 (14.3)
Guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testingc
 BSAC/EUCAST11 (2.8)
 CLSI/NCCLS200 (51.4)
 Other12 (3.1)
 Not stated166 (42.7)
Version of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines stated
 Stated168 (43.8)
 Not stated216 (56.3)
Internal quality control reported
 Yes122 (31.8)
 No262 (68.2)
External quality assessment (EQA) participation reported
 International EQA5 (1.3)
 National EQA2 (0.5)
 Results confirmed by national or international surveillance laboratory23 (6)
 Not stated354 (92.2)
  1. aOne article combined the report of a retrospective and a prospective study
  2. bAutomated systems include VITEK 2, Phoenix 100 and Rapid ATB tests
  3. cSix studies used the CLSI/NCCS and the BSAC/EUCAST guidelines for different antibiotics so contributed to the numbers twice