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Table 2 The separate and joint relations of key alcohol and tobacco public health policies to cancer mortality (deaths per 100,000 population) in Australian women

From: Can public health policies on alcohol and tobacco reduce a cancer epidemic? Australia's experience

ModelsWomen
Head and neck cancer, Coef. (95% CI)Lung cancer, Coef. (95% CI)Breast cancer, Coef. (95% CI)Colorectum cancer, Coef. (95% CI)Liver cancer, Coef. (95% CI)All cancer sites, Coef. (95% CI)
Separate relation of alcohol and tobacco policies to cancer mortality
 Alcohola
  Liquor licence liberalisation in the 1960s0.04 (0.02 to 0.06)***0.17 (− 0.10 to 0.44)− 0.05 (− 0.25 to 0.15)0.18 (0.09 to 0.27)***0.01 (− 0.09 to 0.11)0.22 (− 0.47 to 0.90)
  RBT introduced in Victoria in 1976 and fully implemented in all states in 1982− 0.06 (− 0.08 to − 0.03)***− 0.23 (− 0.47 to 0.01)− 0.40 (− 0.62 to − 0.17)**− 0.18 (− 0.27 to − 0.09)***0.03 (− 0.06 to 0.11)− 1.25 (− 2.01 to − 0.49)**
 Tobaccob
  Release of RCOP and USSG reports in 1962 and 1964 and health media campaigns about the dangers of tobacco in 1967− 0.04 (− 0.06 to − 0.01)**− 0.03 (− 0.19 to 0.12)− 0.05 (− 0.23 to 0.14)− 0.15 (− 0.31 to 0.01)0.01 (− 0.08 to 0.12)0.05 (− 0.80 to 0.90)
  Cigarette ads banned on TV and radio in 1976− 0.07 (− 0.11 to − 0.02)**− 0.23 (− 0.43 to 0.03)*− 0.44 (− 0.68 to − 0.20)***− 0.26 (− 0.47 to − 0.05)*0.00 (− 0.10 to 0.10)− 1.24 (− 2.34 to − 0.14)*
  Tobacco ads banned in print media in December 1986 and smoke-free workplace rules and health warning label introduced in 19870.04 (− 0.03 to 0.10)− 0.04 (− 0.28 to 0.20)0.02 (− 0.27 to 0.31)0.24 (− 0.01 to 0.50)0.02 (− 0.09 to 0.14)0.19 (− 1.09 to 1.46)
 Joint relation of alcohol and tobacco policies to cancer mortalitya,b
  Liquor licence liberalisation in the 1960s0.04 (− 0.10 to 0.17)0.05 (− 0.48 to 0.58)1.19 (0.79 to 1.59)***0.41 (− 0.10 to 0.97)− 0.03 (− 0.10 to 0.05)1.11 (− 0.53 to 2.75)
  RBT introduced in Victoria in 1976 and fully implemented in all states in 1982− 0.41 (− 0.66 to − 0.15)**0.19 (− 0.06 to 0.45)− 0.99(− 1.69 to − 0.28)**− 0.91 (− 1.74 to − 0.08)*0.06 (− 0.05 to 0.17)− 0.69 (− 1.09 to − 0.28)**
  Release of RCOP and USSG reports in 1962 and 1964 and health media campaigns about the dangers of tobacco in 1967− 0.25 (− 0.46 to − 0.04)*− 0.42 (− 0.83 to − 0.01)*− 0.369(− 0.98 to 0.20)− 0.15 (− 0.86 to 0.56)− 0.07 (− 0.18 to 0.04)− 3.91 (− 5.74 to − 2.09)***
  Cigarette ads banned on TV and radio in 1976− 0.08 (− 0.57 to 0.40)− 0.37 (− 0.49 to − 0.25)***− 0.25 (− 0.44 to − 0.06)**− 0.06 (− 0.31 to 0.18)0.02 (0.00 to 0.05)− 1.76 (− 2.79 to − 0.72)**
  Tobacco ads banned in print media in December 1986 and smoke-free workplace rules and health warning labels introduced in 1987− 0.01 (− 0.07 to 0.06)− 0.13 (− 0.27 to 0.01)− 0.21 (− 0.42 to − 0.01)*0.05 (− 0.33 to 0.42)0.01 (− 0.03 to 0.05)0.20 (− 0.50 to 0.90)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. The unit of the coefficients is the number of deaths per 100,000 population, and the coefficient values can be interpreted as the number of cancer deaths per 100,000 population reduced or increased annually in an association with the implementation of alcohol and tobacco policies in the 20 years before. aLag lengths of alcohol policies on male and female cancer mortality are 20 and 19 years, respectively. bLag lengths of tobacco policies on male and female cancer mortality are 20 and 22 years, respectively (lag length estimation was shown in Fig. 1). RBT is a random breath testing program. Head and neck cancer includes lip, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus cancers