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Table 2 Multivariate predictors of molecularly determined new P. falciparum and P. vivax blood-stage infections in 2013

From: Differential impact of malaria control interventions on P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in young Papua New Guinean children

 P. falciparumP. vivax
 IRIRRCI95pIRIRRCI95p
Areas of residence
Ilahita 1–4, 6,71.09Reference group0.65Reference group
Balanga and Balif1.251.220.70–2.120.4850.941.460.81–2.640.213
Kamanokor and Ilahita 51.821.610.92–2.800.0964.836.664.24–10.5< 0.001
Sunuhu 1 and 23.573.102.08–4.63< 0.0015.378.165.38–12.4< 0.001
   p < 0.0001a   p < 0.0001a 
Age     1.261.13–1.40< 0.001
ADI visit interval
Enrolment–week 41.23Reference group3.20Reference group
Week 4–week 80.850.580.27–1.230.1532.620.710.52–0.980.035
Week 8–week 120.220.150.06–0.38< 0.0011.600.440.30–0.63< 0.001
Week 12–week 160.770.500.23–1.090.0812.300.590.43–0.82< 0.001
Week 16–week 201.23   3.200.870.60–1.250.446
Week 20–week 242.581.991.00–3.960.0493.60   
Week 24–week 281.170.830.43–1.610.5832.200.570.41–0.79< 0.001
Week 28–week 321.130.840.43–1.640.6021.980.480.34–0.69< 0.001
Week 32–week 361.280.890.49–1.640.7192.460.580.42–0.80< 0.001
Week 36–week 407.195.553.33–9.25< 0.0012.260.560.39–0.79< 0.001
   p < 0.0001a   p < 0.0001a 
Recent antimalarial useb8.5010.45.92–18.2< 0.0012.79   
Febrile illness2.05   3.02   
2 weeks history of febrile illnessc2.11   2.31   
Haemoglobin
≥ 10 g/dL1.60   2.15   
9–9.9 g/dL1.88   2.48   
≤ 9 g/dL2.06   2.87   
  1. Estimates from a multivariate negative binomial regression with GEE model predicting risk of acquiring new species-specific clones for P. falciparum and P. vivax in a 4-week interval when the child was considered at risk. A backward selection approach was used with the best fitting model consisting of the significant associations. IR incidence rate, IRR incidence rate ratio, CI95 95% confidence interval, p p value, g/dL grams/decilitre, ADI active detection of infections. aOverall significance level for the variable estimated using Wald chi-square test. bAntimalarial treatment within 28 days before the start of the interval. cExcluding febrile illness at the time of visit