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Table 2 The 20-year cumulative impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccination of children aged 2–16 years at 50% coverage in the Netherlands. Events are shown for the entire population and for the targeted age group only. Outcomes are averaged over 1000 simulations. QALY losses and costs include an annual discount rate of 1.5% and 4%, respectively. CP Current program, HC Healthcare, y years

From: Vaccinating children against influenza: overall cost-effective with potential for undesirable outcomes

OutcomeWithin the general populationWithin children aged 2–16 y
CPCP + 2–16 yDifferenceCPCP + 2–16 yDifference
QALY loss (thousands)
 QALY loss illness2319− 46.23.9− 2.3
 QALY loss mortality410370− 391.10.8− 0.3
 Total QALY loss433389− 447.34.7− 2.6
Costs (€, millions)
 Vaccination964125028617303286
 Direct HC costs467398− 696539− 26
 Indirect HC costs0344344000
 Patient costs482396− 8612882− 47
 Productivity loss22141911− 303179115− 64
 Total costs41274299172390539149
Cost-effectiveness
 ICER (€/QALY gained)  3944  57,054
  1. CP current program, HC healthcare, QALY quality-adjusted life-year