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Table 2 Adverse perinatal outcomes in exposed women and the matched comparison group, stratified by therapy comparison. Data presented are numbers (percentage) of outcomes and hazard ratios (95% confidence interval)

From: Use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population-based cohort study

 Aim 1Aim 2
Bupropion vs unexposedVarenicline vs unexposedNRT vs unexposedVarenicline vs NRT
BupropionUnexposed#HR (95% CI)VareniclineUnexposed#HR (95% CI)NRTUnexposed#HR (95% CI)VareniclineNRT#HR (95% CI)
Any adverse outcome91 (39.2%)912 (39.3%)0.93 (0.73–1.19)390 (36.9%)4240 (40.1%)0.86 (0.77–0.97)147 (44.8%)1520 (46.3%)1.02 (0.84–1.23)67 (38.7%)89 (51.4%)0.58 (0.33–1.05)
 Preterm12 (5.2%)192 (8.3%)0.62 (0.34–1.11)69 (6.5%)941 (8.9%)0.72 (0.56–0.92)36 (11.0%)358 (10.9%)1.00 (0.71–1.42)6 (3.5%)21 (12.1%)0.29 (0.12–0.71)
 Small for gestation age*37 (16.2%)369 (16.1%)0.89 (0.60–1.30)119 (11.4%)1612 (15.4%)0.68 (0.56–0.83)47 (14.4%)578 (17.7%)0.77 (0.56–1.07)26 (15.3%)25 (14.7%)1.09 (0.48–2.47)
 Admission to special neonatal care*32 (14.0%)325 (14.2%)0.90 (0.62–1.32)163 (15.6%)1622 (15.5%)0.95 (0.80–1.13)66 (20.2%)692 (21.2%)0.97 (0.74–1.26)22 (12.9%)38 (22.4%)0.59 (0.32–1.10)
 Severe neonatal morbidity complications*15 (6.6%)157 (6.9%)0.87 (0.50–1.52)69 (6.6%)855 (8.2%)0.74 (0.57–0.96)27 (8.3%)345 (10.6%)0.82 (0.55–1.23)13 (7.6%)19 (11.2%)0.60 (0.26–1.37)
 Emergency caesarean34 (14.7%)289 (12.5%)1.15 (0.78–1.71)123 (11.6%)1310 (12.4%)0.88 (0.71–1.08)37 (11.3%)421 (12.8%)1.01 (0.70–1.45)20 (11.6%)26 (15.0%)0.47 (0.20–1.09)
 Severe maternal morbidity complications5 (2.2%)49 (2.1%)0.95 (0.37–2.43)17 (1.6%)172 (1.6%)0.92 (0.53–1.59)10 (3.0%)79 (2.4%)1.22 (0.60–2.46)6 (3.5%)6 (3.5%)0.75 (0.17–3.35)
 PPROM< 573 (3.1%)36 (3.4%)360 (3.4%)1.02 (0.72–1.44)16 (4.9%)139 (4.2%)1.15 (0.68–1.94)< 59 (5.2%)
 Apgar 5 min < 7*< 544 (1.9%)14 (1.3%)288 (2.8%)0.47 (0.27–0.81)6 (1.8%)105 (3.2%)0.59 (0.25–1.37)< 55 (2.9%)
 Placenta abruption< 515 (0.6%)9 (0.9%)97 (0.9%)0.97 (0.49–1.93)< 534 (1.0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Perinatal death< 519 (0.8%)13 (1.2%)122 (1.2%)1.01 (0.57–1.80)< 530 (0.9%)< 5< 5
  1. *Among live births
  2. #Reference group
  3. For aim 1, hazard ratio was obtained from the univariate model. For aim 2, multivariable model did not converge; thus, univariate hazard ratio was reported
  4. Hazard ratio was obtained from the multivariable Cox model which further adjusted for maternal age, having a partner, private health insurance, socio-economic disadvantage, previous caesarean section, prior hospitalisation, mental health, anaemia and coagulation disorders, and drug and alcohol disorders. In the matched sample, these co-variables had standardised difference > 0.10 and frequency ≥ 5