Skip to main content

Table 2 Reported adverse events by therapeutic class

From: Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

ClassNumberWithdrawn due to medicationAdverse effects reported (percentage of total participants) 
Total (%)Cough (%)Headache (%)Dizziness or postural hypotension (%)Angioedema (%)Ankle swelling (%)Hypokalaemia (%)Acute kidney injury (%)Cardiac events (%)Other serious events (%)Death
ACEi or ARB
 Monotherapy127628.33.12.41.60.790.8
 Total6382417.25.20.91.40.91.60.9 0.140.1
Beta-blockers
 Monotherapy13508.12.21.21
 Total19408.20.51.51.01.18
CCB
 Monotherapy3342522.50.36.31.81.80.60.471*
 Total7522720.32.04.01.50.33.32.10.25
Diuretics
 Monotherapy12004.21.70.470.51
 Total7082011.92.11.11.60.61.63.00.210.1
Other agents
 Methyldopa13176.9
 Potassium4200.0
 Placebo3900.01~
 K+ sparing agents in combination56010.71.8
  1. K+ potassium
  2. *On hydrochlorothiazide 12.5–25 mg and died from bowel obstruction
  3. On Verapamil 240–360 mg and died from pneumonia
  4. ~On placebo and died from cerebral haemorrhage, no increase in baseline blood pressure
  5. No adverse events, of this nature, reported