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Table 2 Risk ratios for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 amongst those tested (N = 2658) in UK Biobank

From: Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection: prospective cohort study using UK Biobank

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
RR [95% CI] RR [95% CI] RR [95% CI] RR [95% CI] RR [95% CI] RR [95% CI]
Ethnicity       
 White British (reference group) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
 White Irish 1.166 [0.877, 1.549] 1.165 [0.877, 1.548] 1.133 [0.853, 1.505] 1.169 [0.877, 1.556] 1.150 [0.866, 1.527] 1.132 [0.851, 1.507]
 White Other 1.093 [0.814, 1.467] 1.034 [0.737, 1.452] 1.020 [0.718, 1.448] 1.045 [0.743, 1.470] 1.037 [0.739, 1.454] 1.020 [0.718, 1.449]
 South Asian 1.490*** [1.189, 1.868] 1.384* [1.011, 1.894] 1.270 [0.917, 1.759] 1.382* [1.009, 1.892] 1.355 [0.974, 1.885] 1.279 [0.908, 1.802]
 Black 1.489*** [1.215, 1.825] 1.405* [1.075, 1.836] 1.324* [1.011, 1.734] 1.388* [1.062, 1.813] 1.355* [1.031, 1.781] 1.289 [0.978, 1.699]
Socioeconomic deprivation       
 Quartile 1 (most advantaged, reference group) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Quartile 2 1.035 [0.874, 1.224] 1.039 [0.878, 1.229] 1.023 [0.865, 1.210] 1.039 [0.878, 1.229] 1.035 [0.875, 1.225] 1.020 [0.862, 1.207]
 Quartile 3 1.050 [0.894, 1.233] 1.039 [0.884, 1.220] 1.012 [0.861, 1.191] 1.041 [0.885, 1.223] 1.028 [0.875, 1.207] 1.011 [0.860, 1.190]
 Quartile 4 (least advantaged) 1.209* [1.038, 1.408] 1.164 [0.997, 1.358] 1.135 [0.962, 1.340] 1.158 [0.989, 1.355] 1.133 [0.968, 1.326] 1.114 [0.943, 1.316]
Education level       
 College or university degree (reference group) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
 A levels/AS levels or equivalent 1.049 [0.867, 1.270] 1.057 [0.873, 1.279] 1.060 [0.877, 1.282] 1.048 [0.866, 1.269] 1.045 [0.862, 1.265] 1.043 [0.862, 1.262]
 O levels/GCSEs/CSEs or equivalent 1.121 [0.971, 1.295] 1.135 [0.982, 1.311] 1.131 [0.976, 1.311] 1.132 [0.979, 1.309] 1.093 [0.945, 1.263] 1.092 [0.942, 1.266]
 Others 1.310** [1.111, 1.544] 1.301** [1.104, 1.533] 1.236* [1.045, 1.461] 1.306** [1.107, 1.541] 1.257** [1.066, 1.482] 1.207* [1.019, 1.428]
 None of the above 1.227** [1.055, 1.428] 1.230** [1.057, 1.430] 1.210* [1.032, 1.419] 1.228** [1.053, 1.432] 1.188* [1.018, 1.386] 1.180* [1.005, 1.385]
  1. Note: RRs shown are for the relationship between each variable shown and the risk of testing positive amongst those who have had a test. Coefficients for the Chinese, mixed and other groups and for the covariates included are not shown. RR risk ratio. 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, assessment centre
  3. Model 2: 1 + ethnicity, country of birth
  4. Model 3: 2 + education level, household size, socioeconomic deprivation, housing tenure, urbanicity, employment status, manual occupation, healthcare worker
  5. Model 4: 2 + longstanding illness/disability, number of chronic conditions, self-rated health
  6. Model 5: 2 + body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption
  7. Model 6: All of the above covariates
  8. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001