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Table 3 Table summarizing the recommended antimicrobial treatment regimens to treat invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections

From: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review on antimicrobial resistance and treatment

Antibiotic class Antibiotic agent Treatment Recommended dosage and duration Guideline (country, year) Recommendation based on
Observational/case studies Other reviews/guidelines Evidence in enteric fever No reference to literature*
Penicillins Ampicillin, amoxicillin First or second choice (if susceptible) Dose:
 Children: 90–200 mg/kg/day in 3 doses/day
 Adults: 10–12 g/day
  [89] [91,92,93]   [96]
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole First or second choice (if susceptible) Dose:
 Children: 40/8 mg/kg/day in 2 doses/day
 Adults: 1600/320 mg/day in 2 doses/day or 24/4.8–30/6 mg/kg/day in 3 doses/day
US, 2019 [97]
US, 2018 [98]
[91, 99, 100] [91, 92, 94, 95, 101]   [93, 96,97,98, 102]
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol First or second choice (if susceptible) Dose:
 Children and adults: 50–100 mg/kg/day
  [75, 89, 100, 103] [93, 100]   [92, 102]
Third-generation cephalosporins      [75, 90, 99, 103, 104] [94, 95, 104]   [105]
  Ceftriaxone First or second choice Dose:
 Children: 50–100 mg/kg/day in 1–2 doses/day
 Adults: or 75 mg/kg/day or 1–2 g/day in 1 dose/day
US, 2018 [98]
US, 2019 [97]
US, 2018 [106]
CA, 2019 [107]
FR, 2017 [108]
[89, 91, 100, 109, 110] [91, 93, 100,101,102, 108,109,110,111] [5, 92] [6, 96,97,98, 106, 112]
  Cefotaxime First or second choice Dose:
 Children: 100–200 mg/kg/day in 4 doses/day
 Adults: 1–6 g/day in 3–6 doses/day
US, 2019 [97] [83, 89, 91, 100, 110, 113] [91, 93, 100, 101] [110] [111]   [97, 112]
  Ceftazidime, cefoperazone, moxalactam, aztreonam Second choice    [83] [93, 114] [92]  
Fluoroquinolones     US, 2018 [106]
FR, 2008 [115]
[6, 90, 99, 100, 104, 116] [94, 95, 102, 104] [90] [96, 105, 106, 117]
  Ciprofloxacin First or second choice Dose:
 Children: 20 mg/kg/day IV or 20–30 mg/kg/day PO in 2 doses/day
 Adults: 800 mg IV or 1000–1500 mg PO in 2 doses/day
US, 2019 [97]
US, 2018 [98]
[5, 75, 89, 92, 109, 110] [93, 98, 101, 108,109,110] [115] [97, 98, 118]
  Gatifloxacin Second choice Dose: 10 mg/kg/day     [5]  
  Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin Second choice Dose:
 Adults: levofloxacin: 750 mg/day PO/IV in 1 dose/day
 Adults: moxifloxacin: 400 mg/day PO/IV in 1 dose/day
US, 2019 [97]
US, 2018 [98]
  [101]   [98]
  Pefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, trovafloxacin Second choice    [110] [93]   
Macrolides Azithromycin Second choice Dose:
 Children: 10–20 mg/kg/day PO
CA, 2019 [107]
US, 2018 [106]
US, 2018 [98]
[91] [91, 102, 107] [5] [6, 98, 106]
Carbapenems Imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem Second choice    [110]   [5] [91, 102]
Tigecycline Tigecycline Second choice      [5] [91]
  1. PO per os, IV intravenous, US United States, CA Canada, FR France
  2. *Or only reference to conference proceedings, studies on Salmonella enteritis or in vitro/in vivo experimental studies