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Table 1 Characteristics (n (%)) of study participants according to PPD status

From: Evaluation of antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a secondary cohort analysis of the cluster-randomised GeliS trial

  Total
n = 1583
PPD
n = 138 (7.9%)
No PPD
n = 1445 (92.2%)
pvalue*
Maternal characteristics
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, mean ± SD 24.3 ± 4.4 25.2 ± 4.8 24.2 ± 4.4 0.01
 Pre-pregnancy BMI category 0.01
  BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 1047 (66.1) 74 (53.6) 973 (67.3)  
  BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 352 (22.2) 41 (29.7) 311 (21.5)  
  BMI 30.0–40.0 kg/m2 184 (11.6) 23 (16.7) 163 (11.1)  
 Excessive GWG 722 (45.6) 74 (53.6) 648 (44.9) < 0.05
 Parity 0.10
  0 930 (58.8) 93 (67.4) 837 (57.9)  
  1 536 (33.9) 37 (26.8) 499 (34.5)  
  ≥ 2 117 (7.4) 8 (5.8) 109 (7.5)  
Demographic factors
 Age, mean ± SD 30.4 ± 4.4 29.8 ± 4.7 30.4 ± 4.4 0.10
 Educational level
  High school or others 930 (58.8) 93 (67.4) 837 (57.9) 0.03
  University 653 (41.3) 45 (32.6) 608 (42.1)  
 Married 1057 (66.8) 76 (55.1) 981 (67.9) < 0.01
 Living alone 47 (3.0) 7 (5.1) 40 (2.8) 0.13
Lifestyle and metabolic factors
 Alcohol consumption 481 (30.4) 47 (34.1) 434 (30.0) 0.33
 Smoking 80 (5.1) 13 (9.4) 67 (4.6) 0.01
 Low level of physical activity° 802 (50.9) 72 (52.2) 730 (50.5) 0.71
 Gestational diabetes mellitus 155 (10.2) 18 (13.4) 137 (9.9) 0.19
Psychological factors
 Antenatal history of anxiety/depressive symptoms°° 60 (41.7) 94 (68.1) 566 (39.2) < .0001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GWG gestational weight gain (as defined by the IOM)
  2. *p value for differences between PPD vs. non-PPD using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables
  3. °Assessed by the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) before the end of the 12th week of gestation
  4. °°Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ)-4 before the end of the 12th week of gestation
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