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Table 4 The association between unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) concentrations and colorectal cancer risk by anatomical sub-sites in the EPIC study

From: Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses

Colorectal cancer
  Men Women
n cases/controls Odds ratio (95% CI) P n cases/controls Odds ratio (95% CI) P
Adjusted model 658/658 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 0.01 728/728 0.86 (0.76–0.97) 0.02
Anatomical site 658/658   > 0.9 728/728   0.2
Colon 381/381 1.18 (0.99–1.42) 0.07 485/485 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.008
Rectum 277/277 1.19 (0.99–1.43) 0.06 243/243 0.95 (0.62–0.79) 0.79
Colon sub-site 339/339   0.1 447/447   0.9
Proximal 156/156 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 0.5 218/218 0.77 (0.62–0.95) 0.017
Distal 183/183 1.55 (1.15–2.11) 0.01 229/229 0.79 (0.62–1.00) 0.06
  1. EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition): Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between log-transformed UCB levels (log-UCB), standardized per one standard deviation (1-SD) increments, and CRC risk. The crude model was conditioned on the matching factors including study center, age at blood collection (1 year), fasting status and time (3 h intervals) at blood collection, among women, additionally by menopausal status (pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal or surgically menopausal), and hormone therapy (HT) (yes, no). The multivariable model was adjusted for level of education (none/primary school, technical/professional, secondary school, and university degree), BMI, height, smoking status (never, former, current smoker), physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active), alcohol consumption (g/day), dietary intakes of fiber (g/day), red meat (g/day), processed meats (g/day), dairy products (g/d), and total energy intake (kcal/day)
  2. Abbreviations: n number, P P value, CI confidence interval
  3. Cases matched 1:1 to control subjects
  4. Pheterogeneity