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Table 5 The top five most commonly reported pathogens in Southern Africa, stratified by time period

From: Non-malarial febrile illness: a systematic review of published aetiological studies and case reports from Africa, 1980–2015

  1980 to ≤ 1990 1991 to ≤ 2000 2001 to ≤ 2010 2011 to ≤ 2015
Bacteria Non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 8) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 7) Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 15)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 7) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5) Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4) Escherichia coli (n = 10)
Neisseria meningitidis (n = 7) Staphylococcus, coagulase negative (n = 3) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 3) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 8)
Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6) Klebsiella spp. (n = 3) Escherichia coli (n = 3) Enterobacter spp. (n = 8)
Haemophilus spp. (n = 4) Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3) Streptococcus, viridans group (n = 2) Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 8)
Viruses CCHF virus (n = 6) CCHF virus (n = 3) Rift Valley fever virus (n = 3)
Rift Valley fever virus (n = 5) Genus Cytomegalovirus (n = 1) Wesselsbron virus (n = 1)
West Nile virus (n = 2) Adenovirus (n = 1) Sindbis virus (n = 1)
Wesselsbron virus (n = 2) Human herpes simplex virus type 1 (n = 1)
Sindbis virus (n = 2) Human enterovirus (n = 1)
Parasites Taenia spp. (n = 1)
   
Fungi Candida spp. (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 2) Candida spp. (n = 5)
Candida spp. (n = 1) Cryptococcus spp. (n = 4)
Candida parapsilosis (n = 1) Candida albicans (n = 4)
Fungus (n = 1) Candida parapsilosis (n = 3)
Candida tropicalis (n = 2)
  1. CCHF Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. No distinction has been made between case series, fever series, and seroprevalence studies. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of publications reporting the given microorganism