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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants who were still alive vs those who were deceased by December 31, 2015

From: Relationship between serum B12 concentrations and mortality: experience in NHANES

   Still alive, N = 21,239 Deceased, N = 3023 p value
Gender, M/F (n) 24,262 10,449/10,790 1712/1311 2.0 × 10−14
Age 18–39 years (%) 24,262 41.7 6.0 < 1.0 × 10−200
Age 40–59 years (%)   32.9 14.3
Age ≥ 60 years (%)   25.4 79.7
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23,920 28.6 ± 6.7 28.0 ± 6.2 8.8 × 10−7
Waist circumference (cm) 23,245 97 ± 16 100 ± 15 2.0 × 10−18
SBP (mmHg) 23,298 123 ± 18 138 ± 25 < 1.0 × 10−200
DBP (mmHg) 23,118 71 ± 11 69 ± 13 2.4 × 10−17
WBC (× 109/l) 24,235 7.2 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 3.3 2.1 × 10−10
Hemoglobin (mg/dl) 24,235 14.2 ± 1.5 14.0 ± 1.7 1.5 × 10−15
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 14,174 0.19 (0.07–0.44) 0.29 (0.14–0.67) 3.9 × 10−70
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 24,138 5.0 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.2 2.5 × 10−7
Glucose (mmol/l) 24,141 5.5 ± 2.0 6.2 ± 2.8 1.8 × 10−63
HbA1c (%) 24,225 5.6 ± 1.0 6.0 ± 1.3 9.7 × 10−77
Creatinine (μmol/l) 24,141 72 (62–88) 80 (71–106) 8.7 × 10−80
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 24,141 100 (84–116) 77 (56–94) < 1.0 × 10−200
Serum B12 (pmol/l) 24,262 343 (257–463) 354 (252–494) 0.016
Serum folate (nmol/l) 24,182 38.7 (27.4–53.4) 37.7 (32.7–69.9) 8.4 × 10−89
Methylmalonic acid (nmol/l)1 19,492 130 (100–172) 175 (126–252) 4.9 × 10−158
Homocysteine (μmol/l)2 13,681 7.7 (6.4–9.3) 10.4 (8.3–13.3) < 1.0 × 10−200
Ethnicity 24,262    3.5 × 10−71
 Mexican American (n)   3927 568
 Other Hispanic (n)   1433 90
 Non-Hispanic White (n)   9077 1730
 Non-Hispanic Black (n)   4811 543
 Others, including multi-racial (n)   1991 92
Education 22,730    1.8 × 10−166
 Level 1 (%)   10.4 25.2
 Level 2 (%)   14.4 19.7
 Level 3 (%)   22.9 23.4
 Level 4 (%)   29.5 20.2
 Level 5 (%)   22.8 11.5
Annual family income 22,348    1.9 × 10−110
 < 25k (%)   36.3 56.0
 25–75k (%)   41.3 36.5
 > 75k (%)   22.4 7.5
Never smoking (%) 23,179 51.7 39.9 3.0 × 10−33
Former smoking (%) 24,262 19.4 35.5 7.8 × 10−90
Current smoking (%) 24,262 26.5 24.0 0.003
Diabetes diagnosis (%) 24,262 14.1 29.0 1.0 × 10−97
Hypertension diagnosis (%) 24,262 30.6 60.3 2.4 × 10−226
Lipid diagnosis (%) 24,262 29.0 40.3 9.5 × 10−37
CVD diagnosis (%) 24,262 7.4 33.3 < 1.0 × 10−300
Cancer diagnosis (%) 24,262 6.5 19.4 3.3 × 10−130
Lung diagnosis (%) 24,262 11.0 16.5 4.8 × 10−19
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR), numbers or percentages
  2. 1In n = 19,492
  3. 2In n = 13,681