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Table 1 Number of participants and their characteristics. Midrange BMI is defined as 18.5–25. Optimal sleep is defined as 7–9 h a night. Healthy diet is defined as having 2 or more of 3 healthy diet attributes (sufficiently low meat, high fruit/vegetable, high fish). Physical activity is measured in MET minutes per week. Screen time is measured as the number of hours of non-work computer and TV time per day. Alcohol frequency is given as 1 = ‘never’, 2 = ‘special occasions only’, 3 = ‘one to three times per month’, 4 = ‘once or twice per week’, and 5 = ‘three to four times per week’. Social deprivation measured using the Townsend deprivation index based on postcode

From: Multiple lifestyle factors and depressed mood: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the UK Biobank (N = 84,860)

  Baseline measures Baseline and follow-up measures
Depression Non-depression Depression Non-depression
Number of participants 18,793 66,067 7050 24,293
Age (mean (sd)) 55.3 (8) 57.1 (8.1) 55.1 (7.7) 56.8 (7.8)
Women (%) 64.6% 47.7% 67.2% 49.6%
Caucasian (%) 94.4% 92.1% 96.4% 95.5%
Current smoker (%) 12.8% 7.8% 9.1% 6.1%
Midrange BMI (%) 32% 34.3% 36.2% 39.3%
Optimal sleep (%) 70.5% 76.3% 74.1% 78.8%
Healthy diet (%) 38.3% 37% 39% 37.4%
Physical activity (mean (sd)) 2663 (2743) 2765 (2712) 2493 (2488) 2588 (2458)
Screen time (mean (sd)) 3.9 (2.4) 3.8 (2.2) 3.8 (2.3) 3.7 (2.1)
Alcohol frequency (mean (sd)) 4 (1.6) 4.2 (1.5) 4.1 (1.5) 4.4 (1.4)
Social deprivation (mean (sd)) − 1 (3) − 1.4 (2.8) − 1.2 (2.8) − 1.7 (2.6)