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Table 3 Absolute rate differences of total and site-specific fractures by diet group in EPIC-Oxford

From: Vegetarian and vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

Fracture site/diet group Predicted incidencea Absolute rate differenceb
Per 1000 person-years Per 1000 people over 10 years Per 1000 person-years Per 1000 people over 10 years
Total fractures
 Meat eaters 4.8 (4.6, 5.1) 47.2 (44.9, 49.7) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 4.6 (4.2, 5.0) 44.8 (41.0, 49.0) − 0.2 (− 0.6, 0.2) − 2.4 (− 6.2, 1.8)
 Vegetarians 5.3 (4.9, 5.6) 51.3 (48.0, 54.8) 0.4 (0.1, 0.8) 4.1 (0.8, 7.6)
 Vegans 6.9 (5.8, 8.1) 66.6 (56.8, 78.1) 2.0 (1.0, 3.3) 19.4 (9.6, 30.9)
Total fractures in men
 Meat eaters 3.9 (3.4, 4.4) 37.9 (33.4, 42.8) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 3.6 (2.9, 4.5) 35.5 (28.5, 44.3) − 0.2 (− 1.0, 0.7) − 2.3 (− 9.4, 6.4)
 Vegetarians 4.1 (3.5, 4.7) 40.0 (34.9, 45.8) 0.2 (− 0.3, 0.8) 2.1 (− 3.0, 7.9)
 Vegans 4.5 (3.4, 6.1) 44.3 (33.2, 59.1) 0.7 (− 0.5, 2.2) 6.5 (− 4.7, 21.3)
Total fractures in women
 Meat eaters 5.1 (4.8, 5.4) 49.9 (47.2, 52.7) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 4.9 (4.4, 5.4) 47.5 (43.1, 52.3) − 0.3 (− 0.7, 0.3) − 2.4 (− 6.8, 2.4)
 Vegetarians 5.6 (5.2, 6.0) 54.5 (50.5, 58.8) 0.5 (0.1, 0.9) 4.6 (0.6, 8.9)
 Vegans 7.8 (6.4, 9.5) 75.1 (62.0, 90.9) 2.7 (1.3, 4.4) 25.2 (12.1, 41.0)
Arm fractures
 Meat eaters 0.7 (0.6, 0.8) 6.7 (5.8, 7.6) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 6.1 (4.8, 7.9) − 0.1 (− 0.2, 0.1) − 0.5 (− 1.9, 1.2)
 Vegetarians 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 8.3 (7.0, 9.9) 0.2 (0.0, 0.3) 1.6 (0.3, 3.2)
 Vegans 1.0 (0.7, 1.6) 10.4 (6.8, 15.8) 0.4 (0.0, 0.9) 3.7 (0.1, 9.2)
Wrist fractures
 Meat eaters 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 10.7 (9.7, 11.9) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 9.7 (8.0, 11.6) − 0.1 (− 0.3, 0.1) − 1.1 (− 2.7, 0.9)
 Vegetarians 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) 10.7 (9.2, 12.4) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.0 (− 1.5, 1.7)
 Vegans 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 13.2 (9.2, 19.1) 0.3 (− 0.2, 0.8) 2.5 (− 1.6, 8.4)
Hip fractures
 Meat eaters 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) 11.5 (10.4, 12.8) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 1.5 (1.2, 1.7) 14.5 (12.1, 17.3) 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) 2.9 (0.6, 5.7)
 Vegetarians 1.5 (1.2, 1.7) 14.4 (12.4, 16.8) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5) 2.9 (0.9, 5.2)
 Vegans 2.7 (2.0, 3.7) 26.5 (19.4, 36.0) 1.5 (0.8, 2.5) 14.9 (7.9, 24.5)
Leg fractures
 Meat eaters 0.4 (0.4, 0.5) 4.3 (3.6, 5.1) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 4.6 (3.5, 6.1) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.2) 0.3 (− 0.8, 1.8)
 Vegetarians 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 4.3 (3.4, 5.5) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.0 (− 0.9, 1.2)
 Vegans 0.9 (0.5, 1.4) 8.8 (5.5, 14.1) 0.5 (0.1, 1.0) 4.5 (1.2, 9.8)
Ankle fractures
 Meat eaters 0.6 (0.5, 0.7) 6.3 (5.5, 7.2) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) 5.3 (4.1, 6.8) − 0.1 (− 0.2, 0.1) − 1.0 (− 2.2, 0.5)
 Vegetarians 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 6.4 (5.3, 7.7) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.1 (− 1.0, 1.4)
 Vegans 0.7 (0.4, 1.1) 6.5 (3.7, 11.2) 0.0 (− 0.3, 0.5) 0.2 (− 2.6, 4.9)
Other main site fracturesc
 Meat eaters 0.5 (0.5, 0.6) 5.4 (4.7, 6.3) Reference Reference
 Fish eaters 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) 5.4 (4.1, 6.9) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.1) − 0.1 (− 1.3, 1.5)
 Vegetarians 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) 5.4 (4.4, 6.5) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.1) − 0.1 (− 1.0, 1.1)
 Vegans 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 8.7 (5.7, 13.1) 0.3 (0.0, 0.8) 3.2 (0.3, 7.7)
  1. aFor meat eaters, calculated as (1 − Sr) × 1000, where Sr = (1 − observed incidence in meat eaters), representing the average survival (or non-incidence) rate in the meat eaters, or Sr = (1 − observed incidence in meat eaters)10, representing the predicted 10-year survival rate in the meat eaters. For all other diet groups, calculated as (1 − SrHR) × 1000, where HR represents the hazard ratio or confidence intervals of the hazard ratio for each outcome in that diet group, and SrHR represents either the predicted average survival or the predicted 10-year survival rate in the diet group, as indicated in the column heading. Hazard ratios and confidence intervals were based on covariate adjustment as listed for Table 2 model 2 or Table 5 (for total fractures in men and women), and expressed as floating absolute risks
  2. bCalculated as the difference between the predicted incidence per 1000 person-years or per 1000 people over 10 years between each diet group and the meat eaters
  3. cDefined as fractures of the clavicle, rib, or vertebra