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Table 5 Risks of total fractures by diet group, stratified by age, sex, menopausal status, physical activity, and BMI

From: Vegetarian and vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

Stratifying variable

N cases in strata, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals)a

Test of interactionb

Age at recruitment

 

< 50 years

 

≥ 50 years

 

 Meat eaters

690

Reference

1778

Reference

 

 Fish eaters

204

0.86 (0.73, 1.01)

260

0.99 (0.87, 1.14)

 

 Vegetarians

459

1.00 (0.88, 1.13)

403

1.14 (1.01, 1.27)

χ2 = 23.07

 Vegans

80

1.31 (1.03, 1.67)

67

1.50 (1.17, 1.93)

p < 0.001

p-heterogeneityc

 

0.016

 

0.003

 

Sex

 

Men

 

Women

 

 Meat eaters

440

Reference

2028

Reference

 

 Fish eaters

76

0.94 (0.73, 1.21)

388

0.95 (0.85, 1.06)

 

 Vegetarians

202

1.06 (0.88, 1.28)

660

1.09 (0.99, 1.20)

χ2 = 6.39

 Vegans

47

1.18 (0.85, 1.62)

100

1.53 (1.24, 1.88)

p = 0.09

p-heterogeneityc

 

0.64

 

< 0.001

 

Menopausal statusd

 

Premenopausal

 

Postmenopausal

 

 Meat eaters

167

Reference

1500

Reference

 

 Fish eaters

54

0.64 (0.47, 0.87)

231

1.01 (0.88, 1.17)

 

 Vegetarians

161

0.91 (0.73, 1.15)

325

1.13 (0.99, 1.28)

χ2 = 3.74

 Vegans

27

1.41 (0.93, 2.15)

52

1.62 (1.22, 2.16)

p = 0.44

p-heterogeneityc

 

0.004

 

0.004

 

Physical activity

 

Inactive/low

 

Moderate/high

 

 Meat eaters

1437

Reference

561

Reference

 

 Fish eaters

253

0.94 (0.82, 1.08)

144

0.96 (0.79, 1.16)

 

 Vegetarians

495

1.09 (0.98, 1.22)

257

1.03 (0.88, 1.22)

χ2 = 0.69

 Vegans

79

1.43 (1.13, 1.80)

50

1.34 (0.98, 1.82)

p = 0.88

p-heterogeneityc

 

0.006

 

0.25

 

Body mass index

 

< 22.5 kg/m2

 

≥ 22.5 kg/m2

 

 Meat eaters

762

Reference

1593

Reference

 

 Fish eaters

210

0.95 (0.81, 1.11)

237

0.97 (0.84, 1.11)

 

 Vegetarians

428

1.17 (1.02, 1.33)

396

1.04 (0.92, 1.17)

χ2 = 4.71

 Vegans

95

1.66 (1.32, 2.08)

43

1.10 (0.80, 1.49)

p = 0.19

p-heterogeneityc

 

< 0.001

 

0.76

 
  1. aResults shown were for subset analyses by the stratifying variable. Analyses were stratified by sex, method of recruitment (general practice or postal), and region (7 categories), and adjusted for year of recruitment (per year from ≤ 1994 to ≥ 1999), ethnicity (white, other, unknown), Townsend deprivation index (quartiles, unknown), education level (no qualifications, basic secondary (e.g. O level), higher secondary (e.g. A level), degree, unknown), physical activity (inactive, low activity, moderately active, very active, unknown), smoking (never, former, light, heavy, unknown), alcohol consumption (< 1 g, 1–7 g, 8–15 g, 16+ g/day), dietary supplement use (no, yes, unknown), height (5 cm categories from < 155 to ≥ 185 cm, unknown), BMI (< 18.5, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.4, 22.5–24.9, 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30–32.4, ≥ 32.5 kg/m2, unknown), and in women menopausal status (premenopausal, perimenopausal, postmenopausal, unknown), hormone replacement therapy use (never, ever, unknown), and parity (none, 1–2, ≥ 3, unknown), except the stratifying variable where appropriate
  2. bInteractions by age at recruitment, sex, menopausal status, physical activity, and body mass index were investigated by including both strata in the model (e.g. both men and women) and comparing Cox models with and without the appropriate interaction term using likelihood ratio tests
  3. cRepresents heterogeneity in risk between diet groups based on Wald tests
  4. dPremenopausal women included women who were below age 50 years at recruitment if they were perimenopausal or had unknown menopausal status; analyses in premenopausal women were censored at age 50. Postmenopausal women included women above age 50 years at recruitment if perimenopausal or had unknown perimenopausal status