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Table 5 Risks of total fractures by diet group, stratified by age, sex, menopausal status, physical activity, and BMI

From: Vegetarian and vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study

Stratifying variable N cases in strata, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals)a Test of interactionb
Age at recruitment   < 50 years   ≥ 50 years  
 Meat eaters 690 Reference 1778 Reference  
 Fish eaters 204 0.86 (0.73, 1.01) 260 0.99 (0.87, 1.14)  
 Vegetarians 459 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) 403 1.14 (1.01, 1.27) χ2 = 23.07
 Vegans 80 1.31 (1.03, 1.67) 67 1.50 (1.17, 1.93) p < 0.001
p-heterogeneityc   0.016   0.003  
Sex   Men   Women  
 Meat eaters 440 Reference 2028 Reference  
 Fish eaters 76 0.94 (0.73, 1.21) 388 0.95 (0.85, 1.06)  
 Vegetarians 202 1.06 (0.88, 1.28) 660 1.09 (0.99, 1.20) χ2 = 6.39
 Vegans 47 1.18 (0.85, 1.62) 100 1.53 (1.24, 1.88) p = 0.09
p-heterogeneityc   0.64   < 0.001  
Menopausal statusd   Premenopausal   Postmenopausal  
 Meat eaters 167 Reference 1500 Reference  
 Fish eaters 54 0.64 (0.47, 0.87) 231 1.01 (0.88, 1.17)  
 Vegetarians 161 0.91 (0.73, 1.15) 325 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) χ2 = 3.74
 Vegans 27 1.41 (0.93, 2.15) 52 1.62 (1.22, 2.16) p = 0.44
p-heterogeneityc   0.004   0.004  
Physical activity   Inactive/low   Moderate/high  
 Meat eaters 1437 Reference 561 Reference  
 Fish eaters 253 0.94 (0.82, 1.08) 144 0.96 (0.79, 1.16)  
 Vegetarians 495 1.09 (0.98, 1.22) 257 1.03 (0.88, 1.22) χ2 = 0.69
 Vegans 79 1.43 (1.13, 1.80) 50 1.34 (0.98, 1.82) p = 0.88
p-heterogeneityc   0.006   0.25  
Body mass index   < 22.5 kg/m2   ≥ 22.5 kg/m2  
 Meat eaters 762 Reference 1593 Reference  
 Fish eaters 210 0.95 (0.81, 1.11) 237 0.97 (0.84, 1.11)  
 Vegetarians 428 1.17 (1.02, 1.33) 396 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) χ2 = 4.71
 Vegans 95 1.66 (1.32, 2.08) 43 1.10 (0.80, 1.49) p = 0.19
p-heterogeneityc   < 0.001   0.76  
  1. aResults shown were for subset analyses by the stratifying variable. Analyses were stratified by sex, method of recruitment (general practice or postal), and region (7 categories), and adjusted for year of recruitment (per year from ≤ 1994 to ≥ 1999), ethnicity (white, other, unknown), Townsend deprivation index (quartiles, unknown), education level (no qualifications, basic secondary (e.g. O level), higher secondary (e.g. A level), degree, unknown), physical activity (inactive, low activity, moderately active, very active, unknown), smoking (never, former, light, heavy, unknown), alcohol consumption (< 1 g, 1–7 g, 8–15 g, 16+ g/day), dietary supplement use (no, yes, unknown), height (5 cm categories from < 155 to ≥ 185 cm, unknown), BMI (< 18.5, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.4, 22.5–24.9, 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30–32.4, ≥ 32.5 kg/m2, unknown), and in women menopausal status (premenopausal, perimenopausal, postmenopausal, unknown), hormone replacement therapy use (never, ever, unknown), and parity (none, 1–2, ≥ 3, unknown), except the stratifying variable where appropriate
  2. bInteractions by age at recruitment, sex, menopausal status, physical activity, and body mass index were investigated by including both strata in the model (e.g. both men and women) and comparing Cox models with and without the appropriate interaction term using likelihood ratio tests
  3. cRepresents heterogeneity in risk between diet groups based on Wald tests
  4. dPremenopausal women included women who were below age 50 years at recruitment if they were perimenopausal or had unknown menopausal status; analyses in premenopausal women were censored at age 50. Postmenopausal women included women above age 50 years at recruitment if perimenopausal or had unknown perimenopausal status