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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with dementia prescribed Z-drugs and benzodiazepines and comparison cohorts

From: Adverse effects of Z-drugs for sleep disturbance in people living with dementia: a population-based cohort study

  Z-drug (n = 3532) Sleep disturbance, no sedative-hypnotic (n = 1833) No Z-drug, proximal GP consultation (n = 10,214) Benzodiazepine (n = 5172) No benzodiazepine, proximal GP consultation (n = 15,174)
Characteristic n % n % n % n % n %
Women 2087 59% 1145 62% 6074 59% 3222 62% 9491 63%
Age, yearsa 82.9 7.7 83.1 7.1 83.1 7.5 82.5 7.8 82.6 7.8
White ethnicityb 3072 87% 1539 84% 8816 86% 4470 86% 13,042 86%
Care homeb 892 25% 434 24% 2108 21% 1509 29% 2979 20%
Lives aloneb 760 22% 545 30% 2848 28% 993 19% 4785 32%
GP practice area IMD quintilea 3.2 1.4 3.4 1.4 3.1 1.4 3.2 1.4 3.1 1.4
Current smokerb 312 9% 142 8% 722 7% 355 7% 1124 7%
Ex-smokerb 765 22% 428 23% 2226 22% 1163 22% 3322 22%
Alcohol drinkerb 715 20% 489 27% 2142 21% 1127 22% 3297 22%
Body mass indexa,b 24.9 4.9 24.5 4.6 24.9 4.8 24.5 4.8 24.8 4.9
Systolic blood pressurea,b 133.5 19.0 133.9 18.8 134.3 19.1 133.6 18.9 134.5 18.8
Dementia
 Months since dementia diagnosisc 11.4 3.6–26.2 11.0 3.8–24.1 13.5 5.2–27.4 15.6 5.1–32.4 10.3 3.7–22.0
 Dementia subtype
 Alzheimer’s disease 1355 38% 746 41% 4224 41% 2140 41% 6612 44%
 Vascular dementia 940 27% 487 27% 2773 27% 1375 27% 4046 27%
 Other/mixed dementia 409 12% 192 10% 1013 10% 600 12% 1377 9%
 Unspecified dementia 828 23% 403 22% 2184 21% 1057 20% 3139 21%
 Agitation/psychosis history 619 18% 409 22% 1261 12% 1363 26% 1341 9%
 End of life care 197 6% 77 4% 564 6% 416 8% 726 5%
Sleep disturbance
 Sleep disturbance pre-dementia 825 23% 615 34% 1982 19% 1064 21% 2918 19%
 History of benzodiazepine use 869 25% 222 12% 1376 13% 982 19% 2009 13%
 History of Z-drug use 304 9% 113 6% 597 6% 481 9% 852 6%
Medical history in the past year
 Falls 1003 28% 542 30% 2165 21% 1241 24% 3359 22%
 Fractures 360 10% 131 7% 657 6% 409 8% 1071 7%
 Dizziness/unsteadiness 214 6% 127 7% 652 6% 294 6% 817 5%
 Faints/syncope 184 5% 120 7% 533 5% 357 7% 712 5%
 Urinary tract infection/acute LRTI 928 26% 423 23% 2054 20% 1242 24% 3114 21%
 Influenza vaccination 2480 70% 1340 73% 7747 76% 3739 72% 11,350 75%
 Pneumonia vaccination 166 5% 103 6% 506 5% 234 5% 773 5%
 Physician consultationsa 12.5 10.3 11.2 9.4 14.9 12.7 12.9 10.7 13.7 12.0
 Hospital admissionsa 1.3 3.0 1.0 2.2 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.9 0.9 2.3
Comorbidities
 Depression 894 25% 493 27% 2633 26% 1512 29% 3723 25%
 Depression symptoms 692 20% 368 20% 1898 19% 1175 23% 2804 18%
 Anxiety 576 16% 311 17% 1648 16% 1204 23% 2451 16%
 Anxiety symptoms 446 13% 261 14% 1181 12% 877 17% 1751 12%
 Parkinson’s disease 208 6% 109 6% 530 5% 290 6% 723 5%
 Urinary incontinence 520 15% 465 25% 1640 16% 841 16% 2273 15%
 Benign prostatic hyperplasia 361 10% 175 10% 1075 11% 487 9% 1474 10%
 Asthma 366 10% 165 9% 1056 10% 517 10% 1590 10%
 Cancer 743 21% 313 17% 2114 21% 1002 19% 3074 20%
 COPD 266 8% 147 8% 782 8% 369 7% 1209 8%
 Osteoporosis 417 12% 215 12% 1224 12% 581 11% 1885 12%
 Other muscleroskeletal conditions 448 13% 248 14% 1395 14% 664 13% 2036 13%
 Osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis 1426 40% 756 41% 3980 39% 2063 40% 5906 39%
 Other joint conditions 2901 82% 1537 84% 8463 83% 4293 83% 12,615 83%
 Headache/migraine 720 20% 363 20% 2020 20% 1101 21% 2955 19%
 Back/neck pain 1959 55% 1009 55% 5640 55% 2910 56% 8380 55%
 Age-related macular degeneration 189 5% 115 6% 648 6% 348 7% 923 6%
 Cataract 992 28% 547 30% 2940 29% 1400 27% 4284 28%
 Glaucoma 356 10% 186 10% 1011 10% 445 9% 1459 10%
 Retinal disorder 295 8% 138 8% 944 9% 415 8% 1390 9%
 Diabetes 531 15% 245 13% 1712 17% 718 14% 2483 16%
 Hyperlipidaemia 470 13% 269 15% 1443 14% 754 15% 2152 14%
 Hypertension 1822 52% 1006 55% 5736 56% 2762 53% 8521 56%
 Stroke/transient ischaemic attack 783 22% 397 22% 2177 21% 1091 21% 3022 20%
 Myocardial infarction 310 9% 172 9% 909 9% 433 8% 1307 9%
 Heart failure 314 9% 182 10% 988 10% 444 9% 1350 9%
 Atrial fibrillation 528 15% 260 14% 1666 16% 775 15% 2365 16%
 Angina 532 15% 308 17% 1646 16% 811 16% 2263 15%
 Venous thromboembolism 236 7% 123 7% 737 7% 341 7% 1029 7%
Prescriptions in the last 90 days
 Anticholinesterase/memantine 850 24% 385 21% 2417 24% 1237 24% 3662 24%
 Antipsychotic 811 23% 371 20% 1586 16% 1125 22% 851 6%
 SSRI antidepressant 763 22% 352 19% 1855 18% 1174 23% 2616 17%
 Tricyclic antidepressant 363 10% 192 10% 835 8% 596 12% 1748 12%
 Other antidepressant 294 8% 153 8% 575 6% 483 9% 771 5%
 Antiepileptic 241 7% 110 6% 610 6% 424 8% 825 5%
 Analgesic 1730 49% 808 44% 4107 40% 2338 45% 5805 38%
 Inhaled corticosteroid 191 5% 96 5% 507 5% 196 4% 742 5%
 Lipid regulating medication 1217 34% 630 34% 3492 34% 1644 32% 5324 35%
 Diuretic 1188 34% 633 35% 3322 33% 1456 28% 4779 31%
 Beta blocker 645 18% 328 18% 1907 19% 850 16% 2771 18%
 ACE inhibitor 709 20% 379 21% 2222 22% 991 19% 3357 22%
 Angiotensin II receptor antagonist 235 7% 124 7% 724 7% 330 6% 1123 7%
 Calcium channel blocker 643 18% 339 18% 1947 19% 849 16% 2980 20%
 Anticoagulant 204 6% 103 6% 739 7% 295 6% 1056 7%
 Antiplatelet 1603 45% 878 48% 4390 43% 2171 42% 6439 42%
 Cardiac glycoside 281 8% 155 8% 768 8% 345 7% 1032 7%
 NSAID 352 10% 156 9% 815 8% 468 9% 1206 8%
 Bisphosphonate 375 11% 194 11% 1074 11% 477 9% 1618 11%
 Calcium/vitamin D 677 19% 377 21% 1854 18% 888 17% 2754 18%
 Antibiotic (in last 30 days) 1098 31% 567 31% 2590 25% 1370 26% 3640 24%
  1. Abbreviations: ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation, GP general practitioner, LRTI lower respiratory tract infection, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  2. aMean (standard deviation)
  3. bCharacteristic contains missing data as described in Additional file 5 table S2
  4. cMedian (inter-quartile range)