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Table 2 Characteristics and outcomes of infants born to pregnant women confirmed with Covid-19 in this study

From: Impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother’s psychological status and infant’s neurobehavioral development: a longitudinal cohort study in China

Infants’ characteristics/outcomes Total (n = 57) Boy (n = 28) Girl (n = 29) p value
Perinatal conditions
 Delivery unit
 Negative-pressure labor/operating room 18 (31.6%) 11 (39.3%) 7 (24.1%) 0.219
 Isolated labor/operating room 39 (68.4%) 17 (60.7%) 22 (75.9%)  
 Cesarean section 51 (89.5%) 26 (92.9%) 25 (86.2%) 0.670
 Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 4 (7.0%) 1 (3.6%) 3 (10.3%) 0.611
 Preterm (< 37 weeks) 8 (14.0%) 4 (14.3%) 4 (13.8%) 1.000
 Congenital malformation 1 (1.8%) 1 (3.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000
 Fetal distress 1 (1.8%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (3.4%) 1.000
 Neonatal asphyxia 1 (1.8%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (3.4%) 1.000
 Admitted to NICU 11 (19.3%) 2 (7.1%) 9 (31.0%) 0.022
 Screening of SARS-CoV-2
Neonatal throat swab (+) 1/51 1/23 0/28 0.451
Cord blood (+) 0/3 0/3 0/0
Amniotic fluid (+) 0/2 0/2 0/0
Breast milk (+) 0/12 0/9 0/3
Meconium (+) 0/3 0/3 0/0
Placenta (+) 0/2 0/2 0/0
IgG in neonatal serum (+) 8/17 5/12 3/5 0.620
IgM in neonatal serum (+) 3/17 2/12 1/5 1.000
Mother–baby separation days 35 (16, 52) 27 (16, 45) 38 (17, 55) 0.240
Breastfeeding
 At 1 week after birth 5 (8.8%) 2 (7.7%) 3 (10.7%) 1.000
 At 1 month after birth 11 (19.3%) 6 (21.4%) 5 (17.9%) 0.689
 At 3 months after birth 21 (36.8%) 12 (48.0%) 9 (33.3%) 0.355
Neurobehavioral development at 3 months after birth*
 Communication (median (IQR)) 50 (40, 60) 50 (37.5, 55) 50 (40, 60) 0.380
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 10 (19.2%) 6 (24.0%) 4 (14.8%) 0.492
 Gross motor (median (IQR)) 55 (45, 60) 55 (45, 60) 55 (45, 60) 0.931
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 7 (13.5%) 5 (20.0%) 2 (7.4%) 0.241
 Fine motor (median (IQR)) 45 (40, 55) 45 (37.5, 55) 50 (40, 60) 0.498
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 12 (23.1%) 6 (24.0%) 6 (22.2%) 0.879
 Problem solving (median (IQR)) 50 (40, 55) 50 (40, 55) 50 (40, 55) 0.941
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 10 (19.2%) 5 (20.0%) 5 (18.5%) 1.000
 Personal–social (median (IQR)) 45 (40, 55) 45 (40, 55) 45 (35, 55) 0.643
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 12 (23.1%) 5 (20.0%) 7 (25.9%) 0.746
 Social–emotional (median (IQR)) 25 (15, 35) 25 (20, 35) 15 (10, 35) 0.278
 “Monitoring”/“risk” 38 (86.4%) 18 (94.7%) 20 (80.0%) 0.213
  1. *Among the total of 57 cases, there were five cases (three boys and two girls) not responding to the questions on ASQ-3, and there were thirteen cases (nine boys and four girls) not responding to the questions on ASQ:SE-2
  2. The bold font in the column of “p value” indicates the significant difference (p < 0.05) between boys and girls