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Table 2 Clinical characteristics, multimorbidity, and medication use

From: Multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and drug-drug-gene interactions following a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: analysis of a multicentre observational study

Characteristic Female, n = 396 Male, n = 1057 Adjusted p value All, n = 1456††
Demographics
 Age (years), mean (SD) 68.0 (11.6) 64.1 (11.6) 2.0 × 10−8 65.1 (11.7)
 BMI, median (IQR) 27.5 (24.2–32.5) 28.3 (25.4–31.5) 0.85 28.1 (25.0–31.6)
Comorbidities
 Smoking, n (%) 98 (24.7) 266 (25.2) 0.060 365 (25.1)
 Cardiovascular multimorbidity, n (%) 104 (26.2) 288 (27.2) 0.12 392 (26.9)
 Non-cardiovascular multimorbidity, n (%) 96 (24.2) 168 (15.9) 8.0 × 10−3 264 (18.1)
 All multimorbidity, n (%)††† 217 (54.8) 507 (48.0) 0.39 727 (49.9)
 Number of comorbidities, n (%)†††
  0 77 (19.4) 244 (23.1) 0.60 321 (22.0)
  1 102 (25.8) 306 (28.9) 408 (28.0)
  2 97 (24.5) 227 (21.5) 326 (22.4)
  3 56 (14.1) 155 (14.7) 212 (14.6)
  4–5 59 (14.9) 113 (10.7) 172 (11.8)
  6–7 5 (1.3) 12 (1.1) 17 (1.2)
Index NSTE-ACS
 Raised troponin, n (%) 378 (95.5) 1007 (95.3) 0.91 1388 (95.3)
 Coronary catheterisation, n (%) 250 (63.1) 723 (68.4) 0.49 974 (66.9)
 PCI/CABG, n (%) 156 (39.4) 502 (47.5) 0.082 659 (45.3)
Cardiovascular drugs at discharge
 Aspirin, n (%) 371 (93.7) 996 (94.2) 0.82 1370 (94.1)
 P2Y12 inhibitor, n (%) 334 (84.3) 899 (85.1) 0.89 1236 (84.9)
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 318 (80.3) 871 (82.4) 0.61 1191 (81.8)
 Beta blocker, n (%) 300 (75.8) 889 (84.1) 1.8 × 10−3 1192 (81.9)
 Statin, n (%) 367 (92.7) 1006 (95.2) 0.14 1376 (94.5)
 Patients on all five secondary prevention cardiovascular drugs, n (%) 205 (51.8) 630 (59.6) 0.081 837 (57.5)
Drug use by category at discharge
N = 698‡‡ n = 208 n = 490   n = 698
 Gastro-intestinal, n (%) 129 (62.0) 267 (54.5) 0.18 396 (56.7)
 Cardiovascular, n (%) 207 (99.5) 490 (100.0) 0.99 697 (99.9)
 Respiratory, n (%) 45 (21.6) 99 (20.2) 0.85 144 (20.6)
 Central nervous system, n (%) 85 (40.9) 160 (32.7) 0.026 245 (35.1)
 Infections, n (%) 17 (8.2) 33 (6.7) 0.65 50 (7.2)
 Endocrine, n (%) 83 (39.9) 136 (27.8) 0.012 219 (31.4)
 Nutrition and blood, n (%) 44 (21.2) 63 (12.9) 0.024 107 (15.3)
 Musculoskeletal, n (%) 36 (17.3) 65 (13.3) 0.37 101 (14.5)
 Eye, ear, nose, oropharynx, and skin, n (%) 10 (4.8) 28 (5.7) 0.33 38 (5.4)
 Other, n (%) 9 (4.3) 41 (8.4) 0.017 50 (7.2)
Numbers of drugs at discharge
 Number of cardiovascular drugs/patient, median (IQR, range) 6 (5–6, 0–9) 6 (5–7, 2–9) 0.21 6 (5–7,0–9)
 Number of non-cardiovascular drugs/patient, median (IQR, range) 3 (1–5, 0–15) 2 (1–4, 0–16) 0.014 2 (1–4, 0–16)
 Number of drugs/patient, median (IQR, range) 9 (8–11, 2–22) 9 (7–11, 3–26) 0.20 9 (7–11, 2–26)
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CABG coronary artery bypass graft surgery, IQR interquartile range, n (%) number (percent) of patients, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, SD standard deviation
  2. Adjusted for age, except when testing the association between sex and age itself
  3. ††The sex of three patients was missing from the n = 1456 cohort; thus, these patients were not included in the sex-stratified columns, but were counted in the All column
  4. †††The age-adjusted p value for the association between sex and all comorbidities was 0.39 when comorbidities were dichotomised into multimorbidity (≥ 2 vs < 2 any cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular conditions) and p = 0.60 when number of comorbidities was treated as an integer count within negative binomial regression
  5. Secondary prevention cardiovascular drugs were aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, ACEI/ARB, beta blocker, and a statin
  6. ‡‡For drug categories within the n = 698 cohort, a patient was counted if they were on one or more drugs within a given category