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Table 1 Socio-demographic, lifestyle and body composition characteristics of participants at baseline, 6 and 12 months follow-up

From: Targeting body composition in an older population: do changes in movement behaviours matter? Longitudinal analyses in the PREDIMED-Plus trial

Parameters Number Baseline, mean (SD) Number 6 months, mean (SD) Number 12 months, mean (SD)
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age (years) 1564 65.3 (5.0)     
 Sex, women, n (%) 1564 751 (48)     
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 1564 469 (30)     
 Height (m) 1564 1.63 (0.10)     
 Waist circumference (cm) 1564 107 (9.31) 1444 105 (9.52) 1404 105 (9.72)
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 1564 32.5 (3.34) 1502 32.0 (3.49) 1496 31.8 (3.50)
 Current smokers, n (%) 1564 197 (12.6)     
 Higher education, n (%) 1564 333 (21.3)     
 Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1564 2426 (581) 1428 2294 (467) 1400 2268 (454)
Lifestyle: physical activity and sedentary behaviour (self-reported)
 Total PA (h/day) 1564 1.22 (1.01) 1447 1.40 (1.06) 1406 1.41 (1.06)
 LPA (h/day) 1564 0.47 (0.56) 1447 0.48 (0.59) 1406 0.49 (0.59)
 MVPA (h/day) 1564 0.76 (0.90) 1447 0.92 (0.96) 1406 0.92 (0.97)
 Total SB (h/day) 1564 5.86 (1.86) 1446 5.63 (1.77) 1406 5.51 (1.75)
 TV-viewing SB (h/day) 1564 3.12 (1.64) 1446 2.91 (1.52) 1406 2.87 (1.44)
Body composition determined by DXA
 Percentage of body fat* 1564 40.5 (6.90) 1048 39.7 (7.06) 1234 39.6 (7.04)
 VAT (kg) 1529 2.30 (0.89) 1035 2.17 (0.86) 1223 2.21 (0.88)
 Percentage of muscle mass* 1564 56.5 (6.56) 1048 57.2 (6.70) 1234 57.2 (6.68)
 Muscle-to-fat mass ratio** 1564 147 (44.1) 1048 152 (48.3) 1234 153 (48.1)
  1. Values are mean (SD) for continuous variables, and n (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. DXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, VAT visceral adipose tissue, PA physical activity, LPA light physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, SB sedentary behaviour
  3. *Percentage of body fat and percentage of muscle mass were calculated taking into account muscle mass, fat mass and bone mass measured with a whole-body DXA scan
  4. **Muscle-to-fat mass ratio was calculated as (total muscle mass in g/total fat mass in g) × 100