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Table 5 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression of factors associated with being a subsequent TB case in a cluster (a surrogate for recent infection) compared to being the first case or a non-clustered case, in England, Wales and Northern Ireland from 2010 to 2014

From: The impact of HIV infection on tuberculosis transmission in a country with low tuberculosis incidence: a national retrospective study using molecular epidemiology

  Univariable
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable
OR (95% CI)
HIV status
 Negative 1.00 1.00
 Positive 0.85 (0.73–0.98) 0.82 (0.69–0.98)
Year of TB notification
 2010 1.00 1.00
 2011 1.87 (1.70–2.07) 2.06 (1.84–2.31)
 2012 2.60 (2.36–2.87) 3.06 (2.74–3.43)
 2013 2.91 (2.63–3.22) 3.38 (3.02–3.80)
 2014 2.74 (2.48–3.04) 3.17 (2.82–3.56)
Sex
 Female 1.00  
 Male 1.10 (1.04–1.17) 1.09 (1.02–1.17)
Age (years)
 15–24 1.35 (1.24–1.47) 1.19 (1.08–1.32)
 25–34 1.00 1.00
 35–44 1.05 (0.96–1.14) 0.92 (0.83–1.02)
 45–54 1.20 (1.09–1.32) 0.90 (0.80–1.01)
 55–64 1.21 (1.07–1.35) 0.96 (0.83–1.10)
 65+ 0.71 (0.64–0.78) 0.51 (0.45–0.57)
Ethnicity
 White 1.00 1.00
 Black African 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.51 (1.31–1.73)
 Black Other 2.06 (1.72–2.47) 2.25 (1.82–2.78)
 Indian sub-continent 0.72 (0.66–0.77) 0.92 (0.81–1.04)
 Mixed/other 0.71 (0.65–0.79) 0.98 (0.85–1.13)
Time since entry to the UK
 UK born 1.00 1.00
 Within 2 years 0.49 (0.44–0.54) 0.41 (0.36–0.47)
 2–5 years 0.49 (0.44–0.53) 0.39 (0.35–0.44)
 5–10 years 0.56 (0.51–0.62) 0.49 (0.43–0.55)
 More than 10 years 0.65 (0.59–0.70) 0.61 (0.54–0.69)
TB lineage
 Beijing 1.00 1.00
 Euro-American 0.47 (0.41–0.54) 0.38 (0.33–0.45)
 Central Asian Strain 0.58 (0.50–0.66) 0.63 (0.54–0.74)
 East Asian Indian 0.23 (0.19–0.26) 0.23 (0.19–0.28)
 Other 0.37 (0.31–0.42) 0.32 (0.27–0.38)
IMD decile
 For each decile increase 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.98 (0.96–0.99)
Drug misuse
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.62 (2.24–3.08) 1.53 (1.25–1.87)
Alcohol misuse
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.65 (1.43–1.91) 1.21 (1.01–1.45)
Homelessness
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.58 (1.35–1.84) 1.03 (0.85–1.24)
Imprisonment
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.16 (1.84–2.54) 1.26 (1.03–1.54)
  1. OR: odds ratio, IMD: index of multiple deprivation score
  2. Adjusted for all variables shown in the table. The multivariable model included 16,171 TB cases after 2693 were excluded due to missing data on one or more of sex (n = 20), ethnicity (n = 470), time since entry to the UK (n = 2041), IMD score (n = 489) and/or TB lineage (n = 2)
  3. Cases missing data were considered not to have these social risk factors