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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 1533)

From: Methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, renal function, and risk of all-cause mortality in the general population: results from the prospective Lifelines-MINUTHE study

  All subjects (n = 1533) Tertiles of MMA P value
Tertile 1 (n = 511) Tertile 2 (n = 511) Tertile 3 (n = 511)
  MMA (nmol/L) 170 (138–216) ≤ 148 148–196 ≥ 196
  Vitamin B12 (pmol/L) 290 (224–362) 332 (264–416) 295 (231–356) 240 (190–309) < 0.001
   eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 84 (74–91) 86 (77–92) 83 (75–91) 81 (69–90) < 0.001
Demographics
 Male sex (n, %) 769 (50) 254 (50) 252 (50) 263 (51) 0.8
 Age (years) 65 (62–69) 64 (62–68) 65 (62–69) 65 (63–69) < 0.001
   Education      < 0.001
  Low (n, %) 761 (50) 228 (45) 242 (47) 291 (57)  
   High (n, %) 772 (50) 283 (55) 269 (53) 220 (43)  
   Smoking (n, %) 183 (12) 55 (11) 62 (12) 66 (13) 0.6
   Alcohol consumption      0.9
   Non-drinker (n, %) 242 (16) 79 (15) 84 (16) 79 (15)  
   ≤ 1 drink/day (n, %) 552 (36) 185 (36) 190 (37) 177 (35)  
   1–2 drinks/day (n, %) 309 (20) 114 (22) 101 (20) 94 (18)  
   > 2 drinks/day (n, %) 174 (11) 63 (12) 61 (12) 50 (10)  
   Diabetes (n, %) 156 (10) 58 (11) 42 (8) 56 (11) 0.2
   History of CVD (n, %) 186 (12) 58 (11) 65 (13) 63 (12) 0.8
Clinical measurements
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 (24.1–29.4) 26.1 (24.1–29.1) 26.5 (24.0–29.3) 26.3 (24.1–29.8) 0.5
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 18 134 ± 17 134 ± 17 135 ± 18 0.6
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 9 75 ± 9 75 ± 9 76 ± 10 0.2
Laboratory parameters
 Hb (mmol/L) 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.7 8.8 ± 0.7 0.6
 MCV (fL) 91 ± 4 91 ± 4 91 ± 4 91 ± 4 0.7
 Total cholesterol-HDL ratio 3.5 (2.9–4.3) 3.5 (2.9–4.4) 3.5 (3.0–4.3) 3.5 (2.9–4.4) 0.9
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.4
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 75 (66–85) 73 (64–84) 75 (66–84) 78 (67–88) < 0.001
   Total homocysteine (μmol/L) 13 (11–15) 12 (11–14) 13 (11–15) 14 (12–17) < 0.001
Medication
 Vitamin supplements (n, %) 173 (11) 71 (14) 58 (11) 44 (9) 0.03
  1. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, Hb hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, MMA methylmalonic acid