Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between healthcare utilization and comorbidity cluster within 1 year of HF diagnosis

From: Model-based comorbidity clusters in patients with heart failure: association with clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization

  Rate ratio (95% CI)
Unadjusted RR (95% CI) Model 1a Model 2b
N = 314,936 N = 292,768 N = 11,955
Outcome and comorbidity cluster
Outpatient visits
  Low-burden Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Metabolic-vascular 2.33 (2.30, 2.36) 2.01 (1.98, 2.04) 1.96 (1.84, 2.08)
  Ischemic 1.91 (1.89, 1.93) 1.73 (1.71, 1.75) 1.70 (1.60, 1.81)
  Anemia 2.32 (2.26, 2.37) 2.11 (2.06, 2.16) 1.89 (1.67, 2.14)
  Metabolic 1.24 (1.22, 1.25) 1.17 (1.15, 1.20) 1.13 (1.06, 1.21)
Office visits
  Low-burden Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Metabolic-vascular 1.29 (1.28, 1.31) 1.32 (1.31, 1.33) 1.23 (1.17, 1.28)
  Ischemic 1.30 (1.29, 1.31) 1.35 (1.34, 1.37) 1.28 (1.23, 1.34)
  Anemia 1.15 (1.13, 1.17) 1.16 (1.15, 1.18) 1.26 (1.16, 1.38)
  Metabolic 1.08 (1.07, 1.09) 1.05 (1.04, 1.06) 1.05 (1.00, 1.10)
Long-term care stays
  Low-burden Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Metabolic-vascular 2.87 (2.78, 2.96) 2.54 (2.46, 2.62) 2.75 (2.32, 3.26)
  Ischemic 3.06 (2.95, 3.14) 2.26 (2.19, 2.33) 2.38 (2.01, 2.82)
  Anemia 2.22 (2.10, 2.33) 1.77 (1.67, 1.86) 2.41 (1.81, 3.21)
  Metabolic 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 1.21 (1.17, 1.26) 1.12 (0.90, 1.38)
Hospitalizations
  Low-burden Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Metabolic-vascular 2.86 (2.78, 2.96) 2.11 (2.08, 2.15) 2.02 (1.86, 2.19)
  Anemia 2.22 (2.78, 2.96) 1.64 (1.59, 1.68) 1.85 (1.59, 2.16)
  Ischemia 3.04 (2.95, 3.14) 2.11 (2.07, 2.15) 1.99 (1.83, 2.17)
  Metabolic 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 1.07 (1.04, 1.09) 1.09 (0.99, 1.19)
Length of stay for hospitalizations
  Low-burden Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Metabolic-vascular 2.70 (2.97, 3.08) 2.58 (2.52, 2.65) 2.60 (2.28, 2.95)
  Ischemic 2.43 (2.37, 2.49) 2.48 (2.41, 2.54) 2.44 (2.14, 2.77)
  Anemia 2.39 (2.29, 2.50) 2.08 (2.01, 2.16) 2.29 (1.85, 2.80)
  Metabolic 1.25 (1.21, 1.27) 1.09 (1.06, 1.13) 1.17 (1.00, 1.35)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, RR rate ratio, ref. reference
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, race, education, medical insurance status, whether diagnosis was gained inpatient or in outpatient and HF medications; patients with missing data were excluded
  3. bAdjusted for age, sex, race, education, medical insurance status, whether diagnosis was gained inpatient or in outpatient and HF medications, ejection fraction, smoking status; patients with missing data were excluded
\