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Table 2 Effects of the multifaceted intervention on cesarean section rate, Shanghai, China

From: A cluster-randomized field trial to reduce cesarean section rates with a multifaceted intervention in Shanghai, China

 Intervention group (10 hospitals)Control group (10 hospitals)Effect of the intervention
 Baseline (N = 5498)Evaluation (N = 5092)Rate change%p valueBaseline (N = 5254)Evaluation (N = 5429)Rate change%p valueAdjusted OR (95%CI)p value
Cesarean delivery, no. (%)2336 (42.5)2209 (43.4)0.90.322181 (41.5)2303 (42.4)0.90.470.92 (0.73, 1.15)0.44
Risk level of pregnancy
 Low
  Total no.28302420  26712711    
  Cesarean delivery, no. (%)760 (26.9)563 (23.3)−3.60.20691 (25.9)626 (23.1)−2.80.360.96 (0.74, 1.25)0.75
 High
  Total no.26682672  25832718    
  Cesarean delivery, no. (%)1576 (59.1)1646 (61.6)2.50.971490 (57.7)1677 (61.7)4.00.140.9 (0.71, 1.14)0.38
Maternal age
 < 35 years
  Total no.48544330  47054605    
  Cesarean delivery, no. (%)1969 (40.6)1756 (40.6)00.251879 (39.9)1847 (40.1)0.20.630.9 (0.71, 1.13)0.36
 ≥ 35 years
 Total no.533678  494739    
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%)317 (59.5)413 (60.9)1.40.74283 (57.3)418 (56.6)−0.70.510.97 (0.58, 1.62)0.89
Number of previous cesarean deliveries
 0
  Total no.47224134  45164496    
  Cesarean delivery, no. (%)1594 (33.8)1289 (31.2)−2.60.321489 (33.0)1403 (31.2)−1.80.730.94 (0.74, 1.19)0.59
 ≥ 1
 Total no.768952  727930    
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%)739 (96.2)920 (96.6)0.40.95687 (94.5)900 (96.8)2.30.060.55 (0.25, 1.24)0.14**
Parity
 Primipara
  Total no.35462837  33993064    
  Cesarean delivery, no. (%)1405(39.6)1094 (38.6)−1.00.561316 (38.7)1172 (38.3)−0.40.860.98 (0.77, 1.25)0.87
 Multipara without a previous CS
 Total no.11751298  11171432    
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%)188 (16.0)195 (15.0)−1.00.24173 (15.5)231 (16.1)0.60.150.74 (0.49, 1.1)0.13
 Multipara with a previous CS or not
 Total no.19492255  18522364    
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%)929 (47.7)1115 (49.5)1.80.25863 (46.6)1131 (47.8)1.20.0450.75 (0.53, 1.05)0.09
  1. Intention-to-treat analysis
  2. **A logistic model was used because the calculations for the GEE model did not converge. For this model, p values of less than 0.001 were considered to indicate statistical significance and p values of less than 0.003 were considered to indicate marginal significance