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Table 1 Strategies and technologies to mitigate exposure to air pollution (adapted from Burns et al. [131] and Rajagopalan et al. [35])

From: The role of cities in reducing the cardiovascular impacts of environmental pollution in low- and middle-income countries

Societal and governmental interventions
Technology and infrastructure
  • Cleaner vehicles, e.g., lower or no emissions vehicles, investment in public transportation, reduce the sulfur content of motor fuels
  • Less polluting industrial sources and transport, e.g., implementation of emissions filters and better equipment (i.e., diesel particle traps, catalytic converters)
  • More efficient energy generation – lower emission fuels or renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar) for energy generation
  • Increased investments in cycling and public transport infrastructure to encourage active transport
Increasing the distance between populations and pollution
  • Zoning laws, e.g., requiring new residential areas, schools, daycares and elder care facilities to be located at certain distances from major roadways or polluting industries
  • Shifting polluting industry away from city centers, restrict trucks from city centers
  • Air quality monitoring combined with public health warning systems
  • Publicity campaigns to increase public awareness and compliance alongside pollution prevention initiatives
  • Media campaigns to mitigate lobbying activities by industries involved in power and transport
Regulation and policy
  • Congestion charging schemes
  • Residential wood or coal burning bans or regulations
  • Emissions standards
Individual or household interventions
Improving indoor air quality
  • Switch to cleaner-burning fuels for fireplaces and cooking stoves
  • Use of mechanical ventilation and/or reducing use of natural ventilation to reduce infiltration of polluted outdoor air into homes and buildings
  • Installation of portable air cleaners in homes
Behavioral change
  • Avoid commutes during rush hour or avoid busy roads during active transport
  • Transition to healthier lifestyles (e.g., exercise, healthy diet) to reduce risk of comorbid conditions that increase vulnerability to the health impacts of air pollution; preventative medications and screening programs