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Table 2 Exporting pollution to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)

From: The role of cities in reducing the cardiovascular impacts of environmental pollution in low- and middle-income countries

Higher polluting cars and fuels
African cities are urbanizing and motorizing more rapidly than any other continent. Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa import many more used cars than new ones. Nearly all cars imported into Kenya were previously owned, for example, shipped mainly from Japan and Europe, where they may not meet their stringent environmental standards [135]. Used cars offer a more affordable way for residents to become more mobile but also tend to emit higher levels of pollution [136]. Lower quality diesel fuel, common in many LMICs, further increases pollution emissions from these older cars [137].
Hazardous waste from electronics
LMICs continue to receive a large proportion of global hazardous waste, including used lead-acid batteries and discarded electronics. A portion of this waste is often inappropriately disposed of into uncontrolled landfills and another portion is recycled, often in informal settings that involve rudimentary processing and disposal methods [138]. These practices contaminate the local environment as well as exposure workers and nearby residents to heavy metals, flame retardants, and other pollutants [139].