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Table 3 Associations of multimorbidity with progression of frailty over a 5-year follow-up (entire sample age 40+)

From: Course of frailty stratified by physical and mental multimorbidity patterns: a 5-year follow-up of 92,640 participants of the LifeLines cohort study

  Linear regression, model 1* Linear regression, model 2**
Frailty at follow-up predicted by: B (SE) Beta p value B (SE) Beta p value
Separate models per determinant:
1. Multimorbidity (0–10) 0.62 (0.02) 0.10 < .001 0.69 (0.02) 0.11 < .001
2. Psychiatric disorders 0.40 (0.05) 0.03 < .001 0.39 (0.05) 0.02 < .001
3. Musculoskeletal diseases 0.77 (0.05) 0.05 < .001 0.96 (0.05) 0.06 < .001
4. Brain diseases 0.19 (0.05) 0.01 < .001 0.25 (0.05) 0.02 < .001
5. Lung disease 1.23 (0.06) 0.06 < .001 1.23 (0.06) 0.06 < .001
6. Heart disease 0.92 (0.06) 0.05 < .001 0.97 (0.06) 0.05 < .001
7. Endocrine disease 1.21 (0.08) 0.05 < .001 1.09 (0.07) 0.04 < .001
8. Gastrointestinal diseases 0.23 (0.12) 0.01 .052 0.31 (0.12) 0.01 .008
9. Cancer 0.55 (0.08) 0.02 < .001 0.85 (0.08) 0.03 < .001
10. Cerebrovascular disease 1.48 (0.17) 0.03 < .001 1.59 (0.17) 0.03 < .001
11. Kidney disease 1.79 (0.24) 0.02 < .001 2.05 (0.23) 0.02 < .001
Combined model:
• Psychiatric disorders 0.33 (0.05) 0.02 < .001 0.31 (0.04) 0.02 < .001
• Musculoskeletal diseases 0.81 (0.05) 0.05 < .001 1.01 (0.05) 0.06 < .001
• Brain diseases 0.12 (0.05) 0.01 .008 0.18 (0.04) 0.01 < .001
• Lung disease 1.19 (0.06) 0.06 < .001 1.25 (0.06) 0.06 < .001
• Heart disease 0.82 (0.06) 0.04 < .001 0.88 (0.06) 0.04 < .001
• Endocrine disease 1.21 (0.07) 0.05 < .001 1.09 (0.07) 0.04 < .001
• Gastrointestinal diseases 0.13 (0.12) < 0.01 .284 0.20 (0.12) 0.01 .088
• Cancer 0.67 (0.08) 0.03 < .001 1.01 (0.08) 0.04 < .001
• Cerebrovascular disease 1.44 (0.17) 0.02 < .001 1.57 (0.16) 0.03 < .001
• Kidney disease 1.72 (0.23) 0.02 < .001 2.01 (0.23) 0.02 < .001
  1. *Model 1 is adjusted for baseline frailty severity, age, gender, and level of education
  2. **Model 2 is additionally adjusted for lifestyle characteristics (partner status, smoking, alcohol use, BMI)