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Table 2 Relationship between dietary scores and frailty, using multivariable-adjusted ordinary least squares regression analyses

From: Relationship between diet quality scores and the risk of frailty and mortality in adults across a wide age spectrum

Dietary scores Unstandardized beta-coefficients (95%CI) Standardized beta-coefficients p value
NI (per 0.1 point) 0.014 (0.002 to 0.025) 0.19 0.017
NI squared − 0.003 (− 0.006 to 0.000) − 0.32 0.061
NI cubic 0.000 (0.000 to 0.001) 0.26 0.008
E-DII (per 1 point) 0.002 (0.001 to 0.002) 0.03 < 0.001
HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.003 (− 0.003 to 0.010) 0.04 0.307
HEI-2015 squared − 0.001 (− 0.001 to 0.000) − 0.09 0.022
MDS (per 1 point)* − 0.003 (− 0.004 to − 0.002) − 0.05 < 0.001
DASH (per 1 point) − 0.001 (− 0.002 to − 0.001) − 0.02 0.003
E-DII (per 1 point) 0.000 (0.000 to 0.001) 0.01 0.293
NI (per 0.1 point) 0.008 (0.007 to 0.009) 0.12 < 0.001
HEI-2015 (per 10 points) 0.006 (0.000 to 0.012) 0.08 0.048
HEI-2015 squared − 0.001 (−0.001 to 0.000) − 0.10 0.008
NI (per 0.1 point) 0.008 (0.007 to 0.009) 0.11 < 0.001
MDS (per 1 point) − 0.002 (− 0.003 to − 0.001) − 0.03 < 0.001
NI (per 0.1 point) 0.011 (0.010 to 0.012) 0.11 < 0.001
DASH (per 1 point) − 0.001 (− 0.002 to − 0.001) − 0.02 0.002
NI (per 0.1 point) 0.018 (0.007 to 0.019) 0.12 < 0.001
HEI-2015 (per 10 points) − 0.004 (− 0.006 to − 0.003) − 0.05 < 0.001
E-DII (per 1 point) 0.000 (0.000 to 0.001) − 0.01 0.427
MDS (per 1 point) − 0.003 (− 0.004 to − 0.002) − 0.04 < 0.001
E-DII (per 1 point) 0.000 (0.000 to 0.001) 0.01 0.190
DASH (per 1 point) 0.000 (− 0.001 to 0.001) 0.00 0.916
E-DII (per 1 point) 0.002 (0.001 to 0.003) 0.03 0.002
MDS (per 1 point) − 0.002 (− 0.003 to 0.000) − 0.03 0.001
HEI-2015 (per 10 points) − 0.003 (− 0.004 to − 0.001) − 0.03 < 0.001
DASH (per 1 point) 0.001 (0.000 to 0.002) 0.01 0.193
HEI-2015 (per 10 points) − 0.004 (− 0.006 to − 0.003) − 0.05 < 0.001
DASH (per 1 point) 0.000 (− 0.001 to 0.000) − 0.01 0.302
MDS (per 1 point) − 0.003 (− 0.004 to − 0.002) − 0.04 < 0.001
  1. Higher NI and E-DII scores and lower HEI-2015, MDS, and DASH scores represent worse dietary pattern/intake. All regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking, study cohort and BMI. In an initial model we tested the linear relationship, in the second model we added the squared term, and in the third model we added the cubic term. We present results only for the highest order model that was statistically significant. If none of the models were statistically significant, we present the linear model
  2. BMI body mass index, DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, E-DII Energy-density Dietary Inflammatory Index, FI Frailty index, HEI-2015 Healthy Eating Index-2015, MDS Mediterranean Diet Score, NI Nutrition Index
  3. *This regression model was additionally adjusted for energy intake. The standardized beta-coefficients were calculated by multiplying the unstandardized coefficient by the ratio of the standard deviations of the dietary scores and frailty index
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