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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by unprocessed red and processed meat intake in UK Biobank (n = 467,741, see Additional file 1: Fig. 1)

From: Meat consumption and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in 475,000 men and women in the UK Biobank study

Characteristic 0–1 time/week 2 times/week 3–4 times/week > 5 times/week
Mean (SD) or n (%) N = 44,019 N = 160,069 N = 140,674 N = 122,979
Sociodemographic
 Sex, n (%)
  Women 31,318 (71.1) 101,747 (63.6) 71,679 (51.0) 47,657 (38.8)
  Men 12,701 (28.9) 58,322 (36.4) 68,995 (49.0) 75,322 (61.2)
Age (years), mean (SD) 54.9 (8.2) 56.5 (8.0) 56.4 (8.1) 56.5 (8.2)
 Race, n (%)
  White 38,451 (87.4) 151,727 (94.8) 134,509 (95.6) 116,815 (95.0)
  Asian or Asian British 3468 (7.9) 2914 (1.8) 2245 (1.6) 1897 (1.5)
  Black or Black British 886 (2.0) 2607 (1.6) 1685 (1.2) 2047 (1.7)
  Mixed race/others 997 (2.3) 2323 (1.5) 1807 (1.3) 1774 (1.4)
  Unknown 217 (0.5) 498 (0.3) 428 (0.3) 446 (0.4)
 Townsend deprivation, n (%)
  Most affluent (mean − 4.7) 7036 (16.0) 32,846 (20.5) 29,803 (21.2) 24,666 (20.1)
  2 (mean − 3.3) 7524 (17.1) 32,745 (20.5) 29,079 (20.7) 24,304 (19.8)
  3 (mean − 2.1) 8341 (18.9) 32,737 (20.5) 28,324 (20.1) 24,343 (19.8)
  4 (mean − 0.1) 10,146 (23.0) 31,753 (19.8) 27,446 (19.5) 24,066 (19.6)
  Most deprived (mean 3.8) 10,910 (24.8) 29,773 (18.6) 25,869 (18.4) 25,448 (20.7)
  Unknown 62 (0.1) 215 (0.1) 153 (0.1) 152 (0.1)
 Qualification, n (%)
  College/university degree/NVQ 28,490 (64.7) 96,075 (60.0) 82,364 (58.5) 72,437 (58.9)
  National examination at ages 17–18 2491 (5.7) 8708 (5.4) 7795 (5.5) 6626 (5.4)
  National examination at age 16 6321 (14.4) 27,682 (17.3) 24,133 (17.2) 19,675 (16.0)
  Others/unknown 6717 (15.3) 27,604 (17.2) 26,382 (18.8) 24,241 (19.7)
 Employment, n (%)
  In paid employment 27,650 (62.8) 93,965 (58.7) 81,641 (58.0) 70,102 (57.0)
  Pension 10,229 (23.2) 48,219 (30.1) 42,698 (30.4) 37,181 (30.2)
  Not in paid employment 5556 (12.6) 16,487 (10.3) 15,236 (10.8) 14,560 (11.8)
  Unknown 584 (1.3) 1398 (0.9) 1099 (0.8) 1136 (0.9)
Physical measurements
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.9 (4.7) 27.1 (4.7) 27.6 (4.8) 28.1 (4.9)
Lifestyle
 Smoking, n (%)
  Never 26,347 (59.9) 90,448 (56.5) 76,682 (54.5) 62,688 (51.0)
  Former 13,962 (31.7) 54,796 (34.2) 48,534 (34.5) 43,268 (35.2)
  Current < 15 cigarettes/day 1297 (2.9) 4581 (2.9) 4247 (3.0) 4074 (3.3)
  Current ≥ 15 cigarettes/day 1030 (2.3) 4825 (3.0) 6015 (4.3) 7622 (6.2)
  Current, amount unknown 1213 (2.8) 4876 (3.0) 4727 (3.4) 4914 (4.0)
  Unknown 170 (0.4) 543 (0.3) 469 (0.3) 413 (0.3)
 Physical activity level, n (%)
  Low < 10 excess METs 12,405 (28.2) 49,709 (31.1) 45,467 (32.3) 39,706 (32.3)
  Moderate 10 to < 50 excess METs 22,380 (50.8) 80,039 (50.0) 68,196 (48.5) 58,006 (47.2)
  High ≥ 50 excess METs 7769 (17.6) 24,715 (15.4) 21,860 (15.5) 20,458 (16.6)
  Unknown 1465 (3.3) 5606 (3.5) 5151 (3.7) 4809 (3.9)
 Alcohol intake, n (%)
  Non-drinkers 7503 (17.0) 11,938 (7.5) 9611 (6.8) 7790 (6.3)
  < 1 g/day 6814 (15.5) 19,866 (12.4) 14,469 (10.3) 10,861 (8.8)
  1 to < 10 g/day 14,742 (33.5) 57,211 (35.7) 43,226 (30.7) 31,588 (25.7)
  10 to < 20 g/day 7984 (18.1) 36,199 (22.6) 31,681 (22.5) 25,627 (20.8)
  20+ g/day 6740 (15.3) 34,045 (21.3) 41,068 (29.2) 46,544 (37.8)
  Unknown 236 (0.5) 810 (0.5) 619 (0.4) 569 (0.5)
Diet
 Fruit and vegetable intake (s/day), mean (SD) 5.59 (3.19) 4.89 (2.54) 4.50 (2.45) 4.33 (2.50)
 Cereal fibre intake (g/day), mean (SD) 4.66 (3.11) 4.52 (2.89) 4.52 (2.91) 4.44 (2.96)
Oily fish, n (%)
 0 time/week 12,568 (28.6) 12,192 (7.6) 13,264 (9.4) 13,296 (10.8)
 < 1 time/week 8444 (19.2) 52,209 (32.6) 49,864 (35.4) 44,506 (36.2)
 1 time/week 11,522 (26.2) 62,503 (39.0) 55,502 (39.5) 46,265 (37.6)
> 2 times/week 11,299 (25.7) 32,572 (20.3) 21,480 (15.3) 18,279 (14.9)
 Unknown 186 (0.4) 593 (0.4) 564 (0.4) 633 (0.5)
Non-oily fish, n (%)
 < 1 time/week 19,962 (45.3) 54,020 (33.7) 45,185 (32.1) 38,703 (31.5)
 1 time/week 14,427 (32.8) 79,177 (49.5) 74,260 (52.8) 63,929 (52.0)
> 2 times/week 9432 (21.4) 26,393 (16.5) 20,801 (14.8) 19,887 (16.2)
 Unknown 198 (0.4) 479 (0.3) 428 (0.3) 460 (0.4)
Poultry meat, n (%)
 0–1 time/week 26,359 (59.9) 23,487 (14.7) 13,477 (9.6) 10,760 (8.7)
 2 times/week 7141 (16.2) 61,114 (38.2) 56,696 (40.3) 42,291 (34.4)
> 3 times/week 10,461 (23.8) 75,358 (47.1) 70,405 (50.0) 69,835 (56.8)
 Unknown 58 (0.1) 110 (0.1) 96 (0.1) 93 (0.1)
Women factors
Menopausal status, n (%)
 Premenopausal 8960 (28.6) 22,946 (22.6) 17,038 (23.8) 11,207 (23.5)
 Postmenopausal 20,588 (65.7) 73,267 (72.0) 50,660 (70.7) 33,725 (70.8)
 Unknown 1770 (5.7) 5534 (5.4) 3981 (5.6) 2725 (5.7)
Parity, n (%)
 0 births 8314 (26.5) 19,781 (19.4) 11,737 (16.4) 7298 (15.3)
 1–2 births 16,231 (51.8) 58,204 (57.2) 42,076 (58.7) 27,654 (58.0)
 ≥ 3 births 6717 (21.4) 23,671 (23.3) 17,812 (24.8) 12,655 (26.6)
 Unknown 56 (0.2) 91 (0.1) 54 (0.1) 50 (0.1)
HRT use, n (%)
 Never 21,436 (68.4) 61,911 (60.8) 44,006 (61.4) 28,975 (60.8)
 Past 7951 (25.4) 33,162 (32.6) 23,018 (32.1) 15,560 (32.6)
 Current 1773 (5.7) 6379 (6.3) 4429 (6.2) 2897 (6.1)
 Unknown 158 (0.5) 295 (0.3) 226 (0.3) 225 (0.5)
OCP use, n (%)
 Never 6596 (21.1) 18,180 (17.9) 12,849 (17.9) 8917 (18.7)
 Past 23,874 (76.2) 81,528 (80.1) 57,266 (79.9) 37,642 (79.0)
 Current 691 (2.2) 1812 (1.8) 1388 (1.9) 918 (1.9)
 Unknown 157 (0.5) 227 (0.2) 176 (0.2) 180 (0.4)
  1. The x2 test was used to compare the distribution between meat intakes for all categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means between meat intakes. The P heterogeneity between meat intakes was < 0.001 for all variables. All dietary data come from the touchscreen questionnaire. BMI body mass index, HRT hormone replacement therapy, OCP oral contraceptive pill use, NVQ national vocational qualification, s/day servings/day, g/day grams/day