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Table 3 Direct effects of atrial fibrillation on brain volume phenotypes adjusted for genetic effects of ischemic stroke by multivariable MR analysis.

From: Causal effects of atrial fibrillation on brain white and gray matter volume: a Mendelian randomization study

Genetically predicted exposure Conditional F statistics (atrial fibrillation) Conditional F statistics (stroke) Outcome phenotype Heterogeneity Q statistics P value Method Beta Standard error P value
Atrial fibrillation, adjusted for genetic effects of ischemic stroke (16 SNPs) 1.734 1.406 Gray matter volume (normalized) 0.443 IVW −0.022 0.033 0.528
MR-Egger −0.001 0.065 0.992
Gray matter volume (unnormalized) 0.397 IVW −0.022 0.034 0.533
MR-Egger −0.015 0.066 0.823
White matter volume (normalized) 0.035 IVW 0.014 0.045 0.758
MR-Egger −0.003 0.088 0.971
White matter volume (unnormalized) 0.043 IVW 0.013 0.045 0.777
MR-Egger −0.005 0.087 0.958
  1. MR Mendelian randomization, IVW inverse variance-weighted, SNP single-nucleotide polymorphism
  2. Multivariable inverse variance-weighted method and MR-Egger regression was performed to yield the causal estimates