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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population by dietary biomarker-MDS and FFQ-MDS tertiles

From: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed by a novel dietary biomarker score and mortality in older adults: the InCHIANTI cohort study

Characteristics All (n=642) Dietary biomarker-MDS P* FFQ-MDS P*
Tertile 1 (n=251) Tertile 2 (n=193) Tertile 3 (n=198) Tertile 1 (n=191) Tertile 2 (n=265) Tertile 3 (n=186)
Age at baseline (years) a 74 (7) 75 (7) 75 (7) 73 (6) 0.013 76 (7) 75 (7) 72 (5) <0.001
Female sex (n,%) 357 (56) 145 (58) 105 (54) 107 (54) 0.82 130 (68) 155 (58) 72 (39) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) a 27.4 (3.9) 27.4 (4.3) 27.9 (3.7) 27.0 (3.4) 0.19 27.4 (4.3) 27.4 (3.7) 27.6 (3.6) 0.67
Education (years) a 5.4 (3.3) 5.1 (2.6) 5.6 (3.6) 5.7 (3.6) 0.19 5.1 (3.1) 5.3 (3.2) 6.0 (3.4) 0.58
Smoking (n,%)      0.001     0.12
 Never 382 (60) 1147 (59) 115 (60) 120 (61)   122 (64) 167 (63) 93 (50)  
 Former 174 (27) 58 (23) 54 (28) 62 (31)   44 (23) 65 (25) 65 (35)  
Current 86 (13) 46 (18) 24 (12) 16 (8)   25 (13) 33 (12) 28 (15)  
Physical activity
(n, %)
     0.034     0.044
 Sedentary 110 (17) 52 (21) 437 (19) 21 (11)   49 (26) 44 (17) 17 (9)  
 Light 281 (44) 115 (46) 78 (40) 88 (44)   87 (46) 117 (44) 77 (41)  
 Moderate-High 251 (39) 84 (33) 78 (40) 89 (45)   55 (29) 104 (39) 92 (49)  
Energy intake (kcal/day) a 1928 (543) 1833 (511) 1979 (546) 1998 (564) 0.003 1751 (539) 1905 (515) 2141 (515) <0.001
HT (n,%) 402 (63) 157 (62) 124 (64) 121 (61) 0.96 131 (66) 165 (62) 106 (56) 0.19
IRF (n,%) 253 (39) 104 (41) 71 (37) 78 (39) 0.31 92 (48) 116 (44) 45 (24) 0.16
DM (n,%) 89 (14) 44 (18) 24 (12) 21 (11) 0.023 29 (15) 39 (15) 21 (11) 0.38
COPD (n,%) 49 (8) 24 (10) 14 (7) 11 (6) 0.05 15 (8) 18 (7) 16 (9) 0.25
CVD (n,%) 147 (23) 66 (26) 45 (23) 36 (18) 0.06 44 (23) 63 (24) 40 (22) 0.76
Cancer (n,%) 39 (6) 19 (8) 9 (5) 11 (6) 0.44 13 (7) 18 (7) 8 (4) 0.55
Dementia (n,%) 24 (4) 12 (5) 8 (4) 4 (2) 0.22 10 (5) 8 (3) 6 (3) 0.52
Parkinson’s disease
(n, %)
5 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.5) 3 (1.5) 0.24 - 3 (1.1) 2 (1.0) 0.93
  1. BMI body mass index, IRF impaired renal function, DM diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HT hypertension, CVD cardiovascular disease. Cut-offs for FFQ-MDS tertiles were ≤7, 8–10, and ≥11; and for dietary biomarker-MDS tertiles: ≤8, 9–10, and ≥11. These cutoffs were chosen to achieve 3 categories with a similar number of participants in each group
  2. *p values calculated using generalized linear models adjusted for age and sex
  3. aData reported as mean (SD)