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Table 1 Characteristics of 17 included studies

From: Diagnostic accuracy of pooling urine, anorectal, and oropharyngeal specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study characteristics Total (N=17)
Country income level* ^ n (%)
High 14 (82.4)
Middle 2 (11.8)
Low 1 (5.9)
Settings*  
Primary care 4 (23.5)
Youth health centres 1 (5.9)
Hospital 1 (5.9)
Community outpatient clinic 8 (47.1)
STI clinic 4 (23.5)
Sex on premises venue 1 (5.9)
Not specified 2 (11.8)
Populations*  
MSM 12 (70.6)
Cis-women 3 (17.6)
Transgender women 2 (11.8)
Female sex workers 1 (5.9)
Not specified 2 (11.8)
Pharyngeal and anorectal testing collected by  
Patient only 4 (23.5)
Provider only 2 (11.8)
Both 5 (29.4)
Not specified 6 (35.3)
Outcomes addressed  
Diagnostic accuracy of triple site pooling 14 (82.4)
Resource use 4 (23.5)
Acceptability 4 (23.5)
Harms and benefits 6 (35.3)
Health equity 9 (52.9)
  1. *Some studies contained more than one population/setting/country
  2. ^As per the New World Bank current 2021 fiscal year [19]