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Table 3 Mean differences in rate of cognitive change (SD/year) in women

From: Different hypertension thresholds and cognitive decline: a pooled analysis of three ageing cohorts

BP Group HRS (n = 4154) ELSA (n = 2996) CHARLS (n = 2759) Pooled analysis (n = 9909)
β (95% Cl)* P value β (95% Cl)* P value β (95% Cl)* P value Pooled β (95% Cl)* P value I2 (%) P value
Global           
 Normal −0.002 (−0.013 to 0.009) 0.747 0.017 (0.003 to 0.030) 0.015 0.006 (−0.010 to 0.022) 0.471 0.006 (−0.005 to 0.018) 0.269 54.8 0.109
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.020 (− 0.028 to − 0.012) < 0.001 −0.022 (− 0.033 to − 0.012) < 0.001 − 0.004 (− 0.019 to 0.011) 0.612 −0.017 (− 0.026 to − 0.008) < 0.001 53.6 0.116
Memory           
 Normal −0.004 (− 0.012 to 0.004) 0.358 0.012 (0.003 to 0.022) 0.011 0.016 (−0.005 to 0.037) 0.126 0.007 (−0.006 to 0.020) 0.317 74.9 0.019
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.013 (− 0.019 to − 0.006) < 0.001 − 0.015 (− 0.022 to − 0.008) < 0.001 − 0.008 (− 0.027 to 0.011) 0.409 −0.013 (− 0.018 to − 0.009) < 0.001 0.0 0.726
Executive function           
 Normal 0.000 (−0.008 to 0.007) 0.956 0.010 (0.001 to 0.019) 0.031 0.001 (− 0.014 to 0.016) 0.866 0.004 (− 0.003 to 0.011) 0.285 33.2 0.224
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.005 (−0.011 to 0.001) 0.089 −0.009 (− 0.015 to − 0.002) 0.016 0.005 (−0.009 to 0.019) 0.494 −0.005 (− 0.011 to 0.000) 0.069 31.1 0.234
Orientation           
 Normal 0.003 (− 0.011 to 0.016) 0.709 0.011 (−0.005 to 0.026) 0.193 −0.004 (− 0.022 to 0.014) 0.671 0.004 (−0.005 to 0.013) 0.439 0.0 0.493
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.016 (− 0.026 to − 0.005) 0.004 −0.022 (− 0.034 to − 0.010) < 0.001 − 0.006 (− 0.022 to 0.011) 0.513 −0.016 (− 0.024 to − 0.008) < 0.001 20.6 0.284
  1. * After adjusting for age, race (except for the CHARLS), body mass index, education, cohabitation status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, depressive symptoms, antihypertension medication, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic lung disease.
  2. BP, blood pressure; HRS, the Health and Retirement Study; ELSA, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; CHARLS, the China Health Retirement Longitudinal Study