Skip to main content

Table 1 Changes in anthropometric and clinical outcomes in obese patients receiving prebiotic or placebo for 3 months, according to their PA during the protocol

From: Physical activity enhances the improvement of body mass index and metabolism by inulin: a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial performed in obese individuals

  Malto ↓PA Malto ↑PA Inulin ↓PA Inulin ↑PA Between groups comparisons (mixed model)
Baseline 3 months Baseline 3 months Baseline 3 months Baseline 3 months Inulin PA Interaction
Energy and nutrients intake
 Energy (kcal) 2177.5 ± 158.4 1838.3 ± 116.4*† 1873.3 ± 73.9 1612.6 ± 67.7*† 1996.8 ± 90.1 1693.8 ± 90.0 * 1953.5 ± 123.7 1544.9 ± 86.4*† ns ns ns
 Protein (g) 99.8 ± 6.5 87.4 ± 4.6* 81.9 ± 3.0 79.2 ± 3.0 86.9 ± 3.5 78.0 ± 3.4 80.7 ± 4.5 71.9 ± 3.3* ns ns ns
 Lipid (g) 81.8 ± 8.2 63.2 ± 6.3* 76.1 ± 4.8 60.3 ± 3.6*† 80.1 ± 7.0 63.3 ± 4.2* 73.8 ± 6.0 55.6 ± 2.9* ns ns ns
 Carbohydrates (g) 235.2 ± 17.2 207.5 ± 13.1 196.5 ± 10.7 170.5 ± 12.4* 217.5 ± 10.0 186.9 ± 13.5* 220.5 ± 20.0 172.5 ± 15.7*† ns ns ns
 Fiber (g) 22.8 ± 1.6 22.7 ± 1.8 20.3 ± 1.3 21.7 ± 1.5 23.4 ± 2.5 25.5 ± 2.2 21.4 ± 3.0 25.1 ± 2.2 ns ns ns
Anthropometric outcomes
 BMI 35.9 ± 1.8 35.7 ± 1.8 33.3 ± 0.5 32.9 ± 0.5 35.1 ± 0.9 34.6 ± 1.0 39.7 ± 1.7 38.1 ± 1.8*† 0.012 ns 0.044
 Weight (kg) 105.6 ± 3.5 104.9 ± 3.5 98.0 ± 3.2 96.9 ± 3.2 96.4 ± 3.2 95.0 ± 3.5 114.7 ± 6.8 110.2 ± 7.1*† 0.016 ns 0.04
 Total body Fat (kg) 40.1 ± 3.7 39.9 ± 3.4 35.0 ± 2 35.0 ± 1.8 37.5 ± 2.4 36.2 ± 2.5 46.0 ± 2.7 44.7 ± 3.2 ns ns ns
 Waist (cm) 116.7 ± 3.2 115.0 ± 2.7 109.0 ± 2.0 106.2 ± 1.8* 109.7 ± 2.3 108.5 ± 3.0 119.9 ± 5.1 116.2 ± 5.5*† ns ns ns
 Waist/Hip ratio 0.98 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.03 0.96 ± 0.02 0.95 ± 0.02 0.94 ± 0.02 0.93 ± 0.02 0.94 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.02* ns ns ns
 Visceral fat (cm2) 292.2 ± 40.3 295.2 ± 45.2 225.7 ± 22.5 218.2 ± 20.6 205.4 ± 19.9 207.2 ± 21.8 231.4 ± 29.6 217.2 ± 28.7 ns < 0.001 ns
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 140.5 ± 5.3 134.2 ± 6.4 138.6 ± 4.3 130.5 ± 3.1* 134.3 ± 2.8 135.8 ± 3.1 135.8 ± 3.8 127.2 ± 4.6 ns 0.087 ns
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 87 ± 3.8 85.9 ± 3.4 84.4 ± 2.3 81.2 ± 1.7 86.1 ± 2.4 82.6 ± 3.5 87.8 ± 2.6 83.9 ± 3.7 ns ns ns
 Liver stiffness (kPa) 5.9 ± 1.0 6.5 ± 0.9 6.8 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.2 6.5 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.0 0.036 ns ns
Clinical outcomes
 AST (U/l) 30.3 ± 3.6 33.3 ± 4.4 28.4 ± 3.4 28.2 ± 3.2 25.7 ± 3.1 23.8 ± 2.4 21.7 ± 1.2 19.6 ± 1.6* 0.023 ns ns
 ALT (U/l) 40.5 ± 5.9 46.7 ± 9.3 45.0 ± 7.7 45.2 ± 8.1 32.9 ± 5.2 33.3 ± 4.5 29.4 ± 2.8 27.0 ± 3.3 ns ns ns
 gGT (U/l) 61.8 ± 14.8 52.0 ± 10.9 40.8 ± 7.0 40.0 ± 5.9 32.8 ± 5.2 29.9 ± 4.3 39.8 ± 7.6 31.2 ± 5.8*† ns ns ns
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 172.3 ± 9.2 165.5 ± 8.0 199.3 ± 13.6 194.6 ± 13.5 209.7 ± 11.7 217.0 ± 13.9 192.9 ± 14.2 176.1 ± 11.1* 0.031 ns < 0.001
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 95.1 ± 11.7 86.2 ± 9.2 126.9 ± 11.5 122.0 ± 11.2 131.1 ± 10.0 135.8 ± 12.3 114.8 ± 13.6 106.6 ± 11.1 ns ns < 0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 45.4 ± 2.8 48.1 ± 3.8 49.1 ± 2.4 47.2 ± 2.1 45.9 ± 2.6 47.0 ± 2.9 49.2 ± 3.7 47.1 ± 3.5 ns 0.0165 ns
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 172.6 ± 22.2 166.5 ± 29.9 143.8 ± 19.1 150.3 ± 21.2 172.2 ± 19.2 183.9 ± 23.4 192.9 ± 61.8 126.4 ± 19.2 ns ns ns
 HbA1c (%) 5.9 ± 0.2 5.9 ± 0.2 6.3 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.2 5.8 ± 0.2 5.7 ± 0.2 5.8 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.1 ns ns ns
 Fasting C-peptide (pM) 1344.9 ± 157.6 1354.9 ± 130.9 898.4 ± 74.7 929.2 ± 81.7 881.5 ± 81.1 895.4 ± 117.7 1081.6 ± 99.3 1046.8 ± 123.3 ns ns ns
 Fasting insulin (mU/l) 9.9 ± 3.3 14.1 ± 2.1 14.5 ± 2.4 15.2 ± 2.4 13.6 ± 2.4 12.6 ± 1.6 18.1 ± 5.0 13.6 ± 3.4* 0.005 ns ns
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 108.7 ± 5.6 106.7 ± 5.8 110.9 ± 7.5 111.4 ± 9.5 97.5 ± 5.0 95.3 ± 4.4 103.9 ± 4.3 99.7 ± 4.0 ns ns ns
 HOMA IR 4.3 ± 0.7 4.8 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.4 3.6 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 0.3 4.7 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 1.0* 0.07 ns ns
 HOMA ISI 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1* ns 0.09 ns
 Matsuda 3.6 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.4 3.0 ± 0.5* ns ns ns
 DPP-IV activity (mUI/ml) 17.7 ± 1.8 17.3 ± 2.0 20.5 ± 1.7 21.1 ± 1.8 17.4 ± 1.3 16.5 ± 1.3* 18.1 ± 1.3 16.4 ± 1.5* ns ns ns
  1. Values are means ± SEM (MAL ↓PA = placebo group: n = 12; MAL ↑PA = placebo group with increased PA: n = 19, INU ↓PA = prebiotic group: n = 16 and INU ↑PA = inulin group with increased PA: n = 14). A Wilcoxon matched pair was performed for evaluating differences within groups (3 months versus baseline). Significant results for Wilcoxon test are indicated in bold, *p < 0.05, †q < 0.05 (FDR correction). Mixed models were performed to evaluate the effects of different variables between groups (inulin treatment and PA variables as fixed effects and patients and hospitals as random effects). BMI Body mass index, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, gGT Gamma-glutamyl transferase, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, HDL High-density lipoprotein, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, DPP-IV Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, AUC Area under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA ISI HOMA insulin sensitivity index