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Table 1 Baseline and perinatal characteristics of the study population

From: The association between assisted reproductive technology and cardiac remodeling in fetuses and early infants: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics SC (n = 85) ART (n = 88) P
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years) 33.0 (31.5, 36.0) 34.0 (31.0, 36.0) 0.793
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.11±3.44 25.74 (24.06, 28.29) 0.500
 Han, % (n) 85.88 (73) 86.36 (76) 0.927
 Nulliparity, % (n) 56.47 (48) 89.77 (79) <0.001
 Family cardiovascular history, % (n)a 57.65 (49) 48.86 (43) 0.247
 Low socioeconomic level, % (n) 18.82 (16) 28.41 (25) 0.138
 University education, % (n) 87.06 (74) 70.45 (62) 0.008
Paternal characteristics
 Age (years) 34.8±4.3 35.7±4.1 0.165
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.77±3.34 25.32±3.48 0.386
 Han, % (n) 88.24 (75) 88.64 (78) 0.934
 Cigarette smoker, % (n) 34.12 (29) 43.18 (38) 0.221
 Family cardiovascular history, % (n)a 57.65 (49) 53.41 (47) 0.575
 Low socioeconomic level, % (n) 5.88 (5) 13.64 (12) 0.087
 University education, % (n) 85.88 (73) 70.45 (62) 0.014
Fertility and ART characteristics
 Infertility cause, % (n)
  Unexplained - 12.50 (11) -
  Female - 45.45 (40) -
  Male - 18.18 (16) -
  Female + male - 23.86 (21) -
 ART technique, % (n)
  IVF - 54.55 (48) -
  ICSI - 43.18 (38) -
  IVF+ICSI - 2.27 (2) -
 Transferred embryos, % (n)
  1 - 25.00 (22) -
  2 - 73.86 (65) -
  3 - 1.14 (1) -
 FET, % (n) - 76.14 (67) -
Pregnancy complications, % (n)
 Preeclampsia 4.71 (4) 9.09 (8) 0.256
 Gestational diabetes 23.53 (20) 18.18 (16) 0.386
 Placenta previa 2.35 (2) 4.55 (4) 0.710
 Obstetric cholestasis 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Prenatal corticoid exposure 1.18 (1) 2.27 (2) 1.000
Delivery data
 Gestational age at delivery (week) 39.6±1.0 39.5±0.9 0.694
 Cesarean section, % (n) 48.24 (41) 72.73 (64) 0.001
 Male, % (n) 47.06 (40) 52.27 (46) 0.493
 Birth length (cm) 51.0 (49.5, 52.0) 51.0 (50.0, 52.0) 0.559
 Birth weight (g) 3380±280 3448±316 0.138
Neonatal outcome, % (n)
 Admission to NICU 1.18 (1) 0 (0) 0.491
 Major neonatal morbidityb 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Perinatal mortality 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
  1. ART Pregnancy conceived by assisted reproductive technologies, BMI Body mass index, FET Frozen embryo transfer, ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, IVF In vitro fertilization, NICU Neonatal intensive care unit, SC Spontaneous conception
  2. aFamily cardiovascular history is defined as the existence of congenital heart disease, coronary disease, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or stroke in men<55 years and women<65 years
  3. bMajor neonatal morbidity is defined as the existence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy, persistent ductus arteriosus, or sepsis in the first 28 days of life