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Table 2 Rates and hazard ratios of incident stroke by measures of kidney function

From: Diabetic kidney disease and risk of incident stroke among adults with type 2 diabetes

Kidney function measures No events/no at risk P-years Rate/1000 p-years Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Albuminuria
Normal 74/6240 30112.4 2.5 (2.0–3.1) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Moderate 57/2337 11077.5 5.1 (4.0–6.7) 1.99 (1.41–2.83) < 0.001 1.63 (1.13–2.33) 0.009 1.62 (1.13–2.33) 0.009 1.61 (1.12–2.32) 0.010
Severe 25/593 2735.2 9.1 (6.2–13.5) 3.69 (2.34–5.81) < 0.001 2.47 (1.50–4.06) < 0.001 2.43 (1.47–3.99) 0.001 2.29 (1.39–3.80) 0.001
Ln (UACR) 156/9170 43925.0 3.6 (3.0–4.2) 1.64 (1.44–1.87) < 0.001 1.47 (1.27–1.70) < 0.001 1.47 (1.26–1.70) < 0.001 1.44 (1.24–1.68) < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2
Normal 123/8211 39205.5 3.1 (2.6–3.7) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
Decreased 33/959 4719.5 7.0 (5.0–9.8) 1.83 (1.22–2.74) 0.004 1.60 (1.05–2.43) 0.030 1.55 (1.02–2.37) 0.042 1.50 (0.98–2.29) 0.060
Ln (eGFR) 156/9170 43925.0 3.6 (3.0–4.2) 1.26 (1.09–1.47) 0.003 1.22 (1.04–1.42) 0.014 1.21 (1.03–1.41) 0.020 1.18 (1.01–1.38) 0.034
  1. Albuminuria was classified based on UACR as normal (UACR< 30 mg/g), moderate (UACR 30 to < 300 mg/g), and severe (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g). eGFR was categorized as decreased (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or normal (eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2)
  2. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race, and treatment arm; model 2, model 1 variables plus duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1C, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake; body mass index, total-to-HDL cholesterol, systolic BP, use of BP-lowering medications, atrial fibrillation; history of CVD (excluding stroke) at baseline; model 3, model 2 variables plus use of antiplatelet agents (including aspirin)/ anticoagulants, diuretics, ACEI/ARB; model 4, model 3 variables plus eGFR (when assessing UACR) or UACR (when assessing eGFR). For continuous measures, hazard ratios are reported per 1-SD increment of the natural logarithm (ln) of UACR (SD = 1.46) or 1-SD decrease of the natural logarithm (ln) of eGFR (SD = 0.23).ACEI indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin-II receptor blockers, BP blood pressure, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HR hazard ratio, p-years person-years, SD standard deviation, UACR urine albumin-creatinine ratio