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Table 4 Rates and hazard ratios of incident stroke by KDIGO CKD categories

From: Diabetic kidney disease and risk of incident stroke among adults with type 2 diabetes

CKD classification No events/no at risk P-years Rate/1000 p-years Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
CKD stage
No CKD 61/5703 27414.3 2.2 (1.7–2.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
CKD G1 27/1218 5701.1 4.7 (3.2–6.9) 2.27 (1.44–3.59) < 0.001 1.76 (1.10–2.83) 0.019 1.76 (1.10–2.83) 0.020
CKD G2 35/1290 6090.1 5.7 (4.1–8.0) 2.31 (1.51–3.53) < 0.001 1.79 (1.15–2.79) 0.010 1.77 (1.13–2.75) 0.012
CKD G3 33/959 4719.5 7.0 (5.0–9.8) 2.57 (1.65–4.02) < 0.001 2.09 (1.31–3.33) 0.002 2.03 (1.27–3.24) 0.003
CKD risk categories
Low risk 61/5703 27414.3 2.2 (1.7–2.9) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
Moderate risk 52/2484 11876.6 4.4 (3.3–5.7) 1.84 (1.27–2.68) 0.001 1.56 (1.06–2.29) 0.023 1.55 (1.05–2.27) 0.026
High risk 33/797 3719.8 8.9 (6.3–12.5) 3.62 (2.35–5.57) < 0.001 2.62 (1.65–4.16) < 0.001 2.56 (1.61–4.07) < 0.001
Very high risk 10/186 914.4 10.9 (5.9–20.3) 4.22 (2.14–8.32) < 0.001 2.95 (1.46–5.96) 0.003 2.86 (1.41–5.80) 0.004
  1. CKD was classified according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines as follows: (1) no CKD defined as eGFR ≥ 60 and UACR < 30; (2) CKD G1, as eGFR ≥ 90 and UACR ≥ 30; (3) CKD G2, as eGFR between 60 and 89 and UACR ≥ 30; (4) CKD G3, as eGFR between 30 and 59 regardless of UACR
  2. CKD risk categories were defined by eGFR and UACR as follows: (1) low risk, as eGFR ≥ 60 and UACR < 30; (2) moderate risk, as (45 ≤ eGFR < 60 and UACR < 30) or (eGFR ≥ 60 and 30 ≤ UACR ≤ 300); (3) high risk, as (30 ≤ eGFR < 44 and UACR < 30) or (45 ≤ eGFR < 60 and 30 ≤ UACR ≤ 300) or (eGFR ≥ 60 and UACR > 300); (4) very high risk, as (30 ≤ eGFR < 44 and 30 ≤ UACR ≤ 300) or (30 ≤ eGFR < 60 and UACR> 300)
  3. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race, and treatment arm; model 2, model 1 variables plus duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1C, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake; body mass index, total-to-HDL cholesterol, systolic BP, use of BP-lowering medications, atrial fibrillation; history of CVD (excluding stroke) at baseline; model 3, model 2 variables plus use of antiplatelet agents (including aspirin)/ anticoagulants, diuretics, ACEI/ARB.
  4. ACEI indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin-II receptor blockers, BP blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HR hazard ratio, KDIGO Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes, p-years person-years, UACR urine albumin-creatinine ratio