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Table 3 An analysis of socio-demographic risk factors for emergency presentations with self-harm amongst 113,543 adolescents residing in South London using crude and multivariable cox-regression analyses

From: Autism spectrum disorders as a risk factor for adolescent self-harm: a retrospective cohort study of 113,286 young people in the UK

Socio-demographic characteristics Male (n=56,648) Female (n=56,897)
No self-harm (n=56,462) Self-harm (n=186) Unadjusted hazard ratio Adjusted hazard ratiob No self-harm (n=56,063) Self-harm (n=834) Unadjusted hazard ratio Adjusted hazard ratiob
Mean age at baseline (SD) 12.8 (2.1) 14.1 (1.8) 1.70 (1.55–1.86)** 1.38 (1.22–1.57)** 12.8 (2.0) 13.9 (1.8) 1.48 (1.42–1.54)** 1.28 (1.21–1.35)**
Mean duration of follow-up (SD) 2.73 (1.3) 1.89 (1.2) - - 2.70 (1.3) 1.86 (1.1) - -
Ethnicity (n, %) (n, %)    (n, %) (n, %)   
 White 20,943 (37.1) 88 (47.3) Reference Reference 20,534 (36.6) 357 (42.8) Reference Reference
 Black 20,842 (36.9) 28 (15.0) 0.32 (0.21–0.48)** 0.38 (0.23–0.65)** 21,106 (37.7) 212 (25.4) 0.57 (0.48–0.68)** 0.58 (0.78–0.71)**
 Asian 4860 (8.6) 12 (6.5) 0.60 (0.33–1.10) 0.87 (0.35–2.14) 4865 (8.7) 47 (5.7) 0.58 (0.43–0.78)** 0.61 (0.40–0.94)*
 Mixed 6234 (11.0) 16 (8.6) 0.62 (0.36–1.04) 0.69 (0.37–1.26) 6218 (11.1) 102 (12.2) 0.97 (0.77–1.20) 1.12 (0.88–1.41)
 Other 1968 (3.5) 12 (6.5) 1.42 (0.78–2.60) 0.64 (0.14–2.69) 1880 (3.3) 29 (3.5) 0.88 (0.60–1.28) 0.78 (0.46–1.31)
 Not disclosed 1615 (2.9) 30 (16.1) 4.9 (3.3–7.5)** 0.74 (0.17–3.04) 1460 (2.6) 87 (10.4) 4.0 (3.16–5.04)** 0.94 (0.54–1.61)
National neighbourhood deprivationa
 Most deprived quintile 20,586 (36.5) 63 (33.9) Reference Reference 20,144 (35.9) 320 (38.4) Reference Reference
 2nd 22, 855 (40.5) 78 (42.5) 1.14 (0.82–1.58) 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 22,720 (40.6) 330 (39.5) 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 0.98 (0.81–1.17)
 3rd 7989 (14.2) 32 (17.2) 1.31 (0.86–2.20) 1.40 (0.81–2.42) 8193 (14.6) 120 (14.4) 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.88 (0.67–1.15)
 4th 3378 (6.0) <10 (<5.4) 0.78 (0.38–1.64) 0.74 (0.28–1.88) 3311 (5.9) 44 (5.3) 0.85 (0.62–1.16) 0.80 (0.55–1.18)
 Least deprived 1620 (2.9) <10 (<5.4) 0.81 (0.29–2.21) 0.27 (0.04–2.01) 1677 (3.0) 20 (2.4) 0.75 (0.48–1.18) 0.79 (0.46–1.3)
  1. *P0·05, **P0·01; amissing values = 52. bAdjusted for all other factors listed in Tables 3 and 4