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Table 3 Risk of incident dementia below and above the change point of sunlight exposure (continuous variable)

From: Time spent in outdoor light is associated with the risk of dementia: a prospective cohort study of 362094 participants

Time spent in outdoor light Model 1
(Age, Sex)
Model 2
(+Education, Skin color, Use of sun/UV protection, Employment status, Sleep duration, PM2.5)
Model 3
(+Fracture history, Vitamin D supplement, hearing loss, smoking status, alcohol use, CVD, TPA, BMI)
HR (95%CI) P Value HR (95%CI) P Value HR (95%CI) P Value
Average
 1.5 hours reference   reference   reference  
 below 1.5 hours (per 0.5 hour) 1.353 (1.199-1.528) <0.001 1.261 (1.084-1.468) 0.003 1.287 (1.094-1.515) 0.002
 above 1.5 hours (per 0.5 hour) 1.071 (1.044-1.099) <0.001 1.069 (1.033-1.105) <0.001 1.070 (1.031-1.110) <0.001
Summer
 2 hours reference   reference   reference  
 below 2 hours (per 1 hour) 1.232 (1.137-1.336) <0.001 1.180 (1.065-1.308) 0.002 1.193 (1.069-1.331) 0.002
 above 2 hours (per 1 hour) 1.032 (1.013-1.051) 0.001 1.029 (1.005-1.053) 0.019 1.026 (1.000-1.052) 0.048
Winter
 1 hours reference   reference   reference  
 below 1 hours (per 1 hour) 1.182 (1.071-1.305) 0.001 1.173 (1.038-1.326) 0.010 1.184 (1.039-1.349) 0.011
 above 1 hours (per 1 hour) 1.099 (1.071-1.127) <0.001 1.104 (1.066-1.142) <0.001 1.106 (1.066-1.148) <0.001
  1. The results are derived from Cox hazard regression models in three models, with the sunlight exposure as a continuous variable. Bold indicates statistical significance (P value<0.05)
  2. Abbreviation: HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, CVD Cardiovascular disease, TPA Total physical activity, BMI Body mass index