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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients (n = 1922) evaluated for persistent fever, per study country

From: Etiological spectrum of persistent fever in the tropics and predictors of ubiquitous infections: a prospective four-country study with pooled analysis

  Sudan
n = 667
DR Congo
n = 300
Nepal
n = 577
Cambodia
n = 378
Total
n = 1922
Epidemiological data
 Age in year, median (Q1–Q3) 35 (20–48) 19 (7–40) 33 (20–50) 47 (35–58) 35 (20–50)
 Age category
  5–17 years 132 (19.8) 137 (45.7) 107 (18.5) 376 (19.6)
  18–49 years 379 (56.8) 124 (41.3) 308 (53.4) 210 (55.6) 1021 (53.1)
  ≥ 50 years 156 (23.4) 39 (13.0) 162 (28.1) 168 (44.4) 525 (27.3)
 Female gender 382 (57.3) 164 (54.7) 251 (43.5) 193 (51.1) 990 (51.5)
Clinical features
 Duration of fever before inclusion in days, median (Q1–Q3) 15 (10–28) 14 (7–28) 14 (8–28) 14 (10–35) 14 (9–28)
 Reported antibiotic exposurea 168 (25.2) 29 (9.7) 205 (35.5) 24 (6.5) 426 (22.2)
 Reported antimalarial exposurea 181 (27.1) 13 (4.3) 26 (4.5) 4 (1.1) 224 (11.7)
 Underlying co-morbidities 51 (7.6) 31 (9.4) 44 (7.7) 196 (51.8) 322 (16.7)
  HIV infection 5 (0.7) 5 (1.7) 5 (0.9) 41 (10.8) 56 (2.9)
  Diabetes mellitus 12 (1.8) 4 (1.3) 14 (2.4) 44 (11.6) 74 (3.9)
  Arterial hypertension/heart disease 23 (3.4) 16 (5.3) 16 (2.8) 50 (13.2) 105 (5.5)
  Chronic viral hepatitis/liver cirrhosis 27 (7.1) 27 (1.4)
  Rheumatic disorders 2 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 17 (4.5) 21 (1.1)
  Epilepsy/neurological disorders 6 (2.0) 2 (0.3) 5 (1.3) 13 (0.7)
 Associated symptoms
  Respiratory 518 (77.7) 136 (45.3) 352 (61.0) 319 (84.4) 1325 (68.9)
  Digestive 530 (79.5) 181 (60.3) 207 (35.9) 227 (60.1) 1145 (59.6)
  Cutaneous 165 (24.7) 39 (13) 43 (7.5) 89 (23.5) 336 (17.5)
  Genitourinary 505 (75.7) 30 (10.0) 81 (14.0) 94 (24.9) 710 (36.9)
Treatment and outcome
 Immediate hospital admission 72 (10.8) 209 (69.7) 216 (37.4) 207 (54.8) 704 (36.6)
 Duration of hospital stay in days, median (Q1–Q3) 16 (10–17) 6 (4–10) 5 (3–10) 6 (3–10) 6 (3–12)
 Antibiotics prescribed after inclusion 536 (79.2) 166 (53.3) 312 (54.1) 307 (81.2) 1321 (68.7)
 Antimalarials prescribed after inclusion 41 (6.1) 138 (46.0) 39 (6.8) 27 (7.1) 245 (12.7)
 Lost to follow-up or missing information 237 (35.8) 95 (31.7) 70 (12.0) 71 (18.8) 475 (24.7)
 Reported deaths 0 (0) 4 (1.3) 17 (2.9) 42 (11.1) 63 (3.3)
 Resolved or improving 301 (45.1) 182 (60.7) 482 (83.5) 232 (61.4) 1197 (62.3)
 No improvement or sequelae 127 (19.0) 19 (6.3) 8 (1.4) 33 (7.9) 187 (9.7)
  1. All results are presented as n (%) except mentioned otherwise
  2. DR Congo denotes Democratic Republic of Congo; Q1–Q3 interquartile range
  3. aUp to 1 month before inclusion